References Baptista L. F. Dialectal variation in the rain-call of the Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) // Vogelwarte. - 1990. - 35. - P. 249-256. Bergmann H. H., Flottmann E., Heitkamp W. et al. Die Osnabrucker Dialektkarte von Regenrufen des Buchfinken Fringilla coelebs in Jahre 1987 I I Vogelkundliche Berichte aus Niedersachsen. - 1988. - 20, N 3 - P. 89- 96. Burt J. 1995-2005. Syrinx, Version 5.2s (http: // www. syrinxpc. com). Cramp S., Perrins С. M. The birds of the Western Palearctic. - Oxford : University press, 1994. - Vol. 8. - 899 p. Korbut V. V
References Astakhova O. A., Beme I. R. Typological organization and microgeographical variability of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) song in population of Curian spit // Vestnik Moskovskogo universyteta. Ser. 16. biol. - 2010. - N 2. - P. 40-45. - Russian : Астахова О. А., Бёме И. P. Типологическая организация и микрогеографическая изменчивость песни зяблика (Fringilla coelebs L.) в популяции Куршской косы. Böhner J. , Wistel-Wozniak A. Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs song in western and southern Poland: Song types, repertoire sizes, and the terminal element
The repertoire of chaffinches from the northeast of Balkan region consists of 39 song types, 9 of them are most widespread. Comparative analysis of the chaffinch song types from the Balkans and from Caucasus, East Carpathians, Crimean Mountains, plain regions of Ukraine was done. It revealed no Balkan song types in other regions. Chaffinch songs from Balkan are similar by structure to songs from the Caucasus and East Carpathians and quite different from songs from the Crimea and Ukrainian plains. In songs of Balkan chaffinches we discovered 106 elements. Five of them are specific for local birds, 101 were found in birds from other populations. However, 37 elements are common with ones in East Carpathian populations but they were absent in chaffinch songs recorded in the Crimea and plain regions of Ukraine. Common elements in bird songs from the East Carpathians and the Balkans may be an evidence of distant relations between these territorial song complexes and/or presence of relic elements in south mountain complexes. Th e rain-calls of Balkan chaffinches radically diff er from those of birds of Crimea, plain regions of Ukraine and East Carpathians and quite identical to calls of the Caucasus birds
Study of aggressive behavior of different species of birds in various places of the Wood-and-Steppe Zone of Ukraine with the methods of continuous logging and total surveillance revealed that aggression manifestation of birds in different territories are similar. Ratings of successive interactions among aggressive species in different areas are evaluated. According to the ratings, four types of birds position in the ranking were allocated and the species always holding to them in any area are established. The Blackbird is always dominating, whereas the Blue Tit and Treecreeper occupy a subordinate position. The Nuthatch, Greenfinch, Chaffinch, Marsh Tit, Great Tit, and Blackcap are characterized by active successful attack, but have low defense rating. These results can be used in analyzing the adaptation of certain bird species in communities and their success in competitive interactions in different areas.
In Poland, forests comprise 31% of the total surface area, while the lowland coniferous forests comprise 51% of 94 000 km2 afforested areas. The line transect method was employed in 2002 and 2004 to estimate population densities and dominance of all bird species breeding in a selected fragment of such forest (eight transects with 165 sections and 77.7 km in total length). In total, 54 breeding bird species were recorded. The numbers varied between 37 and 44 on the particular transect. The number of breeding pairs per 10 ha varied on each transect from 41.0 to 93.6 (x=64.8; SD=102.22). Shannon’s diversity index varied between 1.2 and 1.4 on particular transects, while Simpson’s diversity index varied between 0.7 and 0.9. Also Pieleau’s evenness index varied slightly between 0.05 and 0.07. In overall, the differences between densities of breeding species on 8 transects were not statistically significant. The Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs was by far the most numerous bird species, recorded as eudominant in all eight transects and present in all 165 sections. The second to the Chaffinch was the Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita; also recorded in all sections and as a dominant in all transects. Three other species, namely the Blackbird Turdus merula, Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus and Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla were recorded each one in more than 90% sections (N=165), and on particular transects their dominance varied between 4 and 11%. Residents comprised 57.5% of all breeding pairs. Short-distance migrants were almost twice more common than long-distance migrants. Insectivores were by far the most numerous feeding guild represented 88.9% of all breeding pairs. Overall density, cumulative dominance, diversity and evenness were unexpectedly very similar in this study (managed forest) and in natural primeval lowland coniferous forests of Białowieża.
Parasitic helminths were the probable cause of death of 41 passeriform birds (29 adults and 12 juveniles in their first year of life) caught in the net during the spring and autumn ringing (1986–2010). The birds (1 Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, 1 House Martin Delichon urbica, 2 Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus, 9 Great Tit Parus major, 3 Willow Tit Poecile palustris, 1 Great Reed Acrocephalus arundinaceus, 1 Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita, 3 Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, 2 Dunnock Prunella modularis, 1 Magpie Pica pica, 5 Robin Erithacus rubecula, 9 Common Blackbird Turdus merula and 3 Song Thrush T. philomelos) were caught in the environs of Přerov (Czech Republic). The helminths: trematodes, tapeworms, nematodes and hook worms, were located in the intestine, glandular and muscular stomach, cloaca, rectum, gall bladder, liver, pulmonary cavity, air sac, nasal and orbital cavity and subcutaneous tissue of the hosts. The intensity of invasion with different species of parasites was up to 734 per host. Some parasites Brachydistomum ventricosum, Mosesia sittae, Aprocta cylindrica, Diplotriaena tridens were acquired at the wintering grounds. All the helmniths were heteroxenous, with development cycle involving intermediate hosts (invertebrates) which are part of the birds’ diet.
The aim of the study done in 2011 and 2012 was to identify the number of breeding bird species, to provide population estimates as well as to evaluate the conservational importance of Škocjan Caves Park for birds. Common bird species were surveyed using the territory mapping method. Rare species and nocturnally active species were surveyed using species-specific methods: observation, the playback method and the line transect method. 81 species were registered, 49 of which bred within the boundaries of the Park. The most abundant breeding species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla (260-320 breeding pairs), Robin Erithacus rubecula (250-310 breeding pairs), Blackbird Turdus merula (230-280 breeding pairs), Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs (230-280 breeding pairs) and Marsh Tit Poecile palustris (200-240 breeding pairs). Qualifying species for the Special Protected Area (SPA) Kras (SI5000023) also bred within the Park: Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus, Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus, Scops Owl Otus scops and Woodlark Lululla arborea. Eagle Owl Bubo bubo was also registered, but breeding attempts during the study period were unsuccessful due to the negative influence of several factors. One of the largest colonies of Alpine Swifts Apus melba, a rare and localized species in Slovenia, is also of conservation concern.
To study the effects domestic cats may have on surrounding wildlife, a complete list was made of 558 items caught in the garden or brought into the house by one cat over 17 years, from 1988 to 2005. The effect on prey populations was assessed by comparing their abundance with the previous 15 years’ population without a cat. On balance, this cat (Cat 1) was clearly beneficial to the native bird species by killing rodents and deterring mustelids. The diet of a second cat (Cat 2) was recorded in the same way from 2006 to 2016. This cat caught half the number of items 148:287, but in the same proportions: house mice (37.8:42.6); ship rats (12.8:12.1); European rabbits (all young) (8.1:6.7); weasels (0.7:0.4); dunnock (12.8:9.2); house sparrow (2.0:3.1); blackbird (2.7:2.5); song thrush (1.4:1.3); European greenfinch (0.7:5.8); chaffinch (0.7:3.3); silvereye (10.1:8.3); New Zealand fantail (2.0:1.0); lizards (8.1:1.7). Despite this, there were significant differences: Cat 2 avoided finches (2:28, P = 0.004), and took a few more lizards (12:5). For both cats, birds apparently formed about a third of their diet: 33.4% and 34.5%, but comparison of the proportion of birds and rodents brought into the house (12:92) and found dead away from the house (49:45) implies that 320 rodent kills may have been missed, being far more difficult to find. As top predators, these cats were clearly beneficial to native birds, and proposed control or elimination may precipitate mesopredator release and a rabbit problem.
Loxodrome bei der Berchnung von Richtung und Distanz zwischen Beringungs- und Wiederfundort. Vogelwarte 26: 336-346. Mokwa K. 2004. Strategia wędrówki europejskich populacji pokrzewki czarnołbistej Sylvia atricapilla. Praca doktorska. Wydział Biologii, Geografii i Oceanologii. Uniwersytet Gdañski. (PhD thesis, in Polish). Kania W. 1981. The autumn migration of the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs over the Baltic coast in Poland. Acta. orn. 18: 371-414. Kania W., Busse P. 1987. An analysis of the recovery distribution based on finding probabilities. Acta orn. 23: 121
72(2): 158–129. Stenhouse, J. H. 1921. Bird notes from southern Spain. – Ibis 3(4): 574–594. Svensson, L. 1992. Identification guide to European passerines, 4 th ed. – Stockholm Svensson, L. 2015. A new North African subspecies of Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs . – Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 135(1): 69–76. Ticehurst, C. B. & Whistler, H. 1933. Some notes on the birds of Portugal. – Ibis 75(1): 97–112. Tomiałojć, L. & Bursell, J. 2006. Why dark plumage of the European Blackbirds Turdus merula ? – Lundiana Journal 7(2): 127–132. Vaurie, C