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Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the paper is to present the state of and prospects for the development of cycling tourism in Central Roztocze, a physico-geographical mesoregion in south- eastern Poland.

Materials and methods: The research was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using the survey technique and a literature review. It was carried out in the period from April to June 2018 on a sample of 128 tourists.

Results: The research showed that tourists most often cycle several times a week, covering distances of more than 30 km. The main reason for visiting this region is its natural values. The general assessment of the tourist routes indicates that they are not sufficiently prepared for tourists. It was also shown that in order to popularise cycling tourism, it is necessary to expand lodging facilities, and to provide more practical information about routes.

Conclusions: The main factor encouraging tourists to visit Central Roztocze is its natural beauty. The general condition of the routes was assessed by the respondents as “average”. The factor conducive to the development of cycling tourism in Central Roztocze might be the development of the cycling infrastructure, including lodging facilities and practical information on cycling trails.

Differentiation of the vegetation of the Szum river (Central Roztocze)

Rivers play a very important role in the retention and transportation of water. The properties of river waters change in time and space. The unique feature occurring in rivers is matter and energy flow in one direction together with a river course. Such features as: river gradient, turbulent motion die down and the quantity of dragged material decreases. Because habitat conditions in each part of a river are different, the distribution (toposequence) of macrophytes is unique. In the last zone of the river habitat conditions are the most favorable to macrophytes development.

The investigation were carried out in one of the most interesting rivers in Central Roztocze - the river Szum. The floristic analysis and basic physical and chemical parameters were examined with typical methods of hydrobiology.

The results of investigations show the clear differentiation of habitat and floristic conditions along the river course. The specific toposequence of water vegetation in each research sites of the river Szum showed the differentiation of habitat conditions too. The highest differentiation of plant communities occurred in places being under the largest influence of the human pressure. It is also reflected in the highest value of the synanthrophic index. The river Szum creates good habitat conditions for the development of riparian vegetation, however water macrophytes were poor, so they did not find here convenient conditions for the development.

Abstract

The paper discusses the question whether geographical information systems (GIS) and digital elevation models (DEM) are useful tools for studying correlations between topographic attributes of a given area, and vascular flora requirements reflected by ecological indicator values (EIVs). The model object was a 4-km-long gorge section of the Sopot river valley (80.5 ha), the Central Roztocze Highlands, South-East Poland. Species lists for 40 ca. 200-m-long and 100-350-m-wide sections, according to the river course, separately for the left and right riverbanks, were made. The analysis of the area was based on a 3-meter resolution DEM. We applied primary topographic attributes: slope, and planar, vertical, and total curvatures and also secondary topographic attributes: solar radiation (SRAD) and topographic wetness index (TWI), as well as other terrain characters: denivelation, total, flat and upslope area of each section. Using the multivariate analyses, we analysed relationships between weighted averages of EIVs for each species and topographic attributes.

The GIS and DEM became useful tools for the detection of patterns of species with different habitat requirements. The species number correlated positively with the total and flat area of a section and the TWI, while the denivelation, mean slope and upslope area had a reverse vector. Among the most frequent and abundant herb species, we found several spatial patterns of distribution, namely those of: Maianthemum bifolium, Carex remota, C. acutiformis, Filipendula ulmaria, Dryopteris filixmas, and Urtica dioica. The rarest species represented Ajuga genevensis, Scorzonera humilis, and Stachys palustris patterns.

Factors affecting the diversity of vegetation of chosen lakeland and riverine peatlands of SE Poland

The aim of the study was to present the diversity of peatland vegetation of two regions in south-eastern Poland. We also aimed to determine the relationship between particular edaphic factors as well as the structure of peatland communities and their diversity. The study was conducted in the lakeland peatlands of the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland and in riverine peatlands in the river breaks of the Central Roztocze Highlands. The lakeland peatlands are characterized by lower species richness and diversity expressed by the Shannon-Wiener index; yet, they exhibit greater phytocoenotic diversity in comparison to the riverine peatlands of Roztocze. Increased tree density in lakeland peatlands reduces the number of species and renders the communities less diverse. Such physico-chemical properties as soil acidity and content of Ca, and Na ensure species richness in Caricetum lasiocarpae phytocoenoses in the lakeland peatlands.

., Popiołek Z., Stączek A., Zinkiewicz A. 1976. Influence of habitats of two forest ecosystems on productivity of pine stands in Central Roztocze. Part I. Ann. UMCS, Sec. C 31: 1-54. Izdebski K., Kimsa T., Kozak K., Michna E., Popiołek Z., Stączek A., Zinkiewicz A. 1977. Influence of habitats of two forest ecosystems on productivity of pine stands in Central Roztocze. Part I. Ann. UMCS, Sec. C 32: 1-43. Klama H., Żarnowiec J., Jędrzejko K. 1999. Mszaki naziemne w strukturze zbiorowisk roślinnych Makroregionu Południowego Polski. Wyd. Politechniki Łódzkiej, Filia w Bielsku

Ireland. J. Zool. 195: 147-156. Ziomek J. 1998. Drobne ssaki ( Micromammalia ) Roztocza. Część I. Micromammalia wybranych biotopów Roztocza Środkowego [Small mammals ( Micromammalia ) of the Roztocze. Part II. Micromammalia of the selected biotopes in Central Roztocze Upland]. Fragm. Faun. 41: 93-123 (in Polish). Zając E. 2004. Process of self-regeneration of the post-harvested areas of peatbogs in the Orawa- Nowy Targ Basin. Electr. J. Pol. Agr. Univ. Environ. Devel. 7, 1. Available Online http://www. ejpau.media.pl.

. 4: 3-95. GRĄDZIEL T., JANICKI G., FURTAK T., PIDEK I.A. & RODZIK J. 2006. Estimation of naturality degree and transformation directions of the vegetation based on phytosociological and landscape methods (example from Guciow village - Central Roztocze). Regionalne Studia Ekologiczno-Krajobrazowe. Problemy Ekologii Krajobrazu 16, Wyd. Polska Asocjacja Ekologii Krajobrazu, Warszawa. GUIOT J. 1990. Methodology of the last climatic cycle reconstruction from pollen data. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimat. Palaeoecol., 80: 49-69. GUIOT J., PONS A., BEAULIEU J.-L. de & REILLE M