In this study, CdZnO films prepared at different ratios of dopants (CdO:ZnO = 5:5, CdO:ZnO = 6:4, and CdO:ZnO = 8:2) were coated on glass surface by using the sol-gel spin coating technique. After this process, surface structure and optical properties of the CdZnO films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The surface structure of the CdZnO films depended on the content of ZnO and CdO in the films. Low percentage of CdO films were very similar to the ZnO film but higher amount of CdO resuted in granular structures together with pure structure of ZnO in the films. Eg values of produced CdZnOs depended on the additions of CdO and ZnO. The obtained Eg values of the produced CdO:ZnO = 5:5 (S3), CdO:ZnO = 6:4 (S4), and CdO:ZnO = 8:2 (S5) films are 2.5 eV, 2.49 eV, and 2.4 eV, respectively.
A. Cvetkovs, O. Kiselova, U. Rogulis, V. Serga and R. Ignatans
The extraction-pyrolytic method has been applied to produce the ZnO and CdO-ZnO thin films on glass and quartz glass substrates. According to X-ray diffraction measurements, the ZnO and CdO phases have been produced with an average size of crystallites about 8–42 nm in the films. The thickness of the layers measured by a profilometer has been up to 150 nm. The surface morphology measurements show that the surface of the films may be rough and non-continuous. The SEM results confirm the dependence between the preparation procedure and the quality of the thin film.
Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for different deposition times using cadmium acetate as cationic precursor. The structural and optical characterization was carried out using XRD, TEM, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer measurements. Structural analyses with XRD confirmed cubic structure of the CdO. Average particle size estimated from Rietveld refinement method of XRD pattern corresponded well with TEM measurement. The optical band gap varied between 2.35 eV to 2.48 eV with deposition time and an increase in optical band gap with decreasing film thickness was observed. The AC electrical conduction behavior of the CdO film was investigated as a function of temperature as well as frequency. The conductivity measurements indicated localized conduction and hopping of carriers between localized states. The value of real part of dielectric constant was found to decrease with frequency and increase with temperature. The Nyquist plots at different temperatures showed the existence of both grains and grain boundaries contributing to conduction mechanism.
A.K. Sharma, S.S. Potdar, M.A. Yewale, Deepak B. Shirgaonkar, K.S. Pakhare, B.M. Sargar, M.V. Rokade and U.M. Patil
Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were synthesized using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method from aqueous cadmium nitrate solution. The bath temperatures were maintained at room temperature (25 °C) and at higher temperature (80 °C). The structural studies revealed that the films showed mixed phases of CdO and Cd(OH)2 with hexagonal/monoclinic crystal structure. Annealing treatment removed the hydroxide phase and the films converted into pure CdO with cubic, face centered crystal structure. SEM micrographs of as-deposited films revealed nanowire-like morphology for room temperature deposited films while nanorod-like morphology for high temperature deposited films. However, cube-like morphology was observed after air annealing. Elemental composition was confirmed by EDAX analysis. Band gap energies of the as-deposited films varied over the range of 3 eV to 3.5 eV, whereas the annealed films showed band gap energy variation in the range of 2.2 eV to 2.4 eV. The annealed films were successfully investigated for NH3 sensing at different operating temperatures and at different gas concentrations. The room temperature synthesized film showed a response of 17.3 %, whereas high temperature synthesized film showed a response of 13.5 % at 623 K upon exposure to 24 ppm of NH3.
Pure CdO nanopowder and CdO-Fe3O4 nanocomposite were synthesized by a cost effective chemical method, and the samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and PL. Also, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of the synthesized samples were studied. XRD patterns of the composite confirm the presence of diffraction peaks related to both CdO and Fe3O4. EDX spectrum confirms the presence of the elements Cd, O and Fe in the composite. Peaks related to Cd–O and Fe–O bonds were observed respectively at 688 cm−1 and 592 cm−1 in the FT-IR spectrum. The paramagnetic behavior of pure CdO becomes ferromagnetic when coupled with Fe3O4. The composite exhibited a high photodegradation efficiency of 92.85 % against the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light radiation.
N. Manjula, M. Pugalenthi, V.S. Nagarethinam, K. Usharani and A.R. Balu
Thin films of manganese-doped cadmium oxide (CdO:Mn) with different Mn-doping levels (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 at.%) were deposited on glass substrates by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer at 375 °C. The influence of Mn incorporation on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of CdO films has been studied. All the films exhibit cubic crystal structure with a (1 1 1) preferential orientation. Mn-doping causes a slight shift of the (1 1 1) diffraction peak towards higher angle. The crystallite size of the films is found to decrease from 34.63 nm to 17.68 nm with an increase in Mn doping concentration. The CdO:Mn film coated with 1 at.% Mn exhibit a high transparency of nearly 90 % which decreases for higher doping concentration. The optical band gap decreases with an increase in Mn doping concentration. All the films have electrical resistivity of the order of 10−4 Ω·cm.
Nanostructured CdO thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer from fresh and aged (1, 2, 3 and 4 days) precursor solutions. XRD studies confirm that all the films exhibit cubic crystal structure with a (1 1 1) preferential orientation. The preferential orientation factor f(1 1 1) increases with an increase in aging the period of precursor solution. The 2θ value of the (1 1 1) plane shifts towards lower Bragg angles with aging inferring an expansion in the lattice volume of the aged films. Increased crystallite size is observed for the 3-days aged film for which minimum strain and dislocation density values are obtained. Optical transparency increases with an increase in aging period of the precursor solution and the optical band gap exhibits a red shift from 2.48 eV to 2.32 eV. Minimum resistivity of 0.78 × 10−2 Ω·cm is observed for the CdO film prepared from 3-days aged solution. The obtained results infer that the CdO film prepared from 3-days aged solution exhibits better physical properties than the others.
F. Ali, M. Abu-Assy, S. El-Gazzar, M. Iqbal and M. Hussain
Structural and optical properties of CdxZn1−x
O (x = 0.0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.1) nanopowder, synthesized by co-precipitation method have been investigated. The effect of annealing on the structural and morphological properties was studied using X-ray diffraction. The samples with x = 0.0 up to 0.075 exhibit wurtzite hexagonal phase, whereas, the sample with x = 0.1 shows two phases: wurtzite hexagonal ZnO and cubic CdO phase. This behavior is explained on the basis of solubility of CdO in ZnO. Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) results revealed the existence of Cd, Zn, and O elements in the nanopowder. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images confirm that the particle size of the prepared samples is in nano range. The optical band gap values obtained from the absorption spectra show that absorption depends on Cd composition. By doping of ZnO with CdO, a red shift in the absorption edge was observed.
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