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References Albaa, SD, Lindstrom, M, Schumacher, TE & Malo, DD 2004, ‘Soil landscape evolution due to soil redistribution by tillage: a new conceptual model of soil catena evolution in agricultural landscapes’, Catena, vol. 58, pp. 77–100. Bird, ECF 1957, ‘The Use of the Soil Catena Concept in the Study of the Ecology of the Wormley Woods,Hertfordshire’, Journal of Ecology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 465–469. Demek, J 1995, ‘Problems of landscape behaviour’, Ekologia (Bratislava), Supplement 1, vol. 14, pp. 23–28. Gennadiev, AN & Zhidkin, AP 2012, ‘Typification of

Abstract

The investigation was carried out in the catena of Retisols within the Opalenica Plain. The aim of the study was to characterize the variation in texture of selected Retisols formed from ground moraine glacial till of Leszno Phase of Vistulian glaciation. The analyzed soils are characterized by a similar degree of soil material segregation, which is characteristic for the typical glacial till. Particle size distribution and granulometric indices lead to conclusion that soils located in the catena on summit and shoulder positions, have vertical texture distribution formed primarily by lessivage process. Sandy texture of eluvial horizons noted in the Retisol of the slope pediment can be a consequence of not only lessivage but also of slope forming processes that led to the appearance of lithic discontinuity. The cluster analysis using Ward’s method and 1-rPearson as the distance measure can be helpful for identification the lithogenic uniformity and/or non-uniformity of soil parent material.

Abstract

The aim of the study was the recognition of profile structure and main physical properties of humus-rich endogley soils, which form muddy-alluvial habitats, and soils appearing together with them in a catena developed in the Upper Narew Valley near Sura¿. Plant communities growing on these soils were also recognized. Typological development of the analysed soils is clearly connected with microrelief of flood terrace, water conditions and vegetation cover. The most moisture positions taken by humus-rich endogley soils are overgrown by Glycerietum maximae community. Typic czernozemic alluvial and mucky-like soils with Phalaridetum arundinaceae community are found slightly higher. In the highest and the most dried parts of the analysed terrain mucky soils overgrown by plant community with domination of Alopecurus pratensis appears. Due to lower ash content physical properties of humus-rich endogley soils and peaty-like deposits considerably distinguish from properties of the other soils and deposits founded on the study area.

Science Annual 55(2): 365–372. Srokowski S., 1930. Jeziora i moczary Prus Wschodnich (Lakes and wetlands of the East Prussia). Wojskowy Instytut Naukowo-Wydawniczy, Warszawa: 137 pp. Świtoniak M., 2014. Use of soil profile truncation to estimate influence of accelerated erosion on soil over transformation in young morainic landscapes, North-Eastern Poland. Catena 116: 173–184. Świtoniak, M., 2015. Issues relating to classification of colluvial soils in young morainic areas (Chełmno and Brodnica Lake District, northern Poland). Soil Science Annual 66(2): 57–66. Świtoniak

studies on the effects of three geotextiles on runoff and erosion of road slope in Beijing, China. In Catena, 2013, 109, pp. 150–156. MORRIS, J.W.F. – BARLAZ, M.A. 2011. A performance-based system for the longterm management of municipal waste landfills. In Waste Management, vol. 31, 2011, no. 4, pp. 649–662. NEARING, M.A. – YIN, S. – BORRELLI, P. – POLYAKOV, V.O. 2017. Catena Rainfall erosivity: An historical review. In Catena, 2017, 157, pp. 357–362. PROPASTIN, P.A. – KAPPAS, M. – MURATOVA, N.R. 2008. Inter-Annual Changes in Vegetation Activities and Their

REFERENCES Beven K., Kirkby M., Schofield N., Tagg A., 1984. Testing a physically-based flood forecasting model (TOPMODEL) for three UK catchments. Journal of Hydrology 69(1): 119–143. Böehner J., Selige T., 2006. Spatial prediction of soil attributes using terrain analysis and climate regionalisation. Goettinger Geographische Abhandlungen 115: 13–28. Drewnik M., Musielok Ł., Stolarczyk M., Mitka J., Gus M., 2016. Effects of exposure and vegetation type on organic matter stock in the soils of subalpine meadows in the Eastern Carpathians. Catena 147: 167

References [1] Yuan X, Zhang L, Li J, Wang Ch, Ji J. Catena. 2014;119:52-60. DOI: 10.1016.j.catena.2014.03.008. [2] Macintosh KA, Griffiths DC. Environ Earth Sci. 2013;70(7):3023-3030. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-013-2363-6. [3] Lu Ch, Cheng J. Proc Eng. 2011;18:318-323. DOI: 10.1016/i.proeng.2011.11.050. [4] Skwierawski A, Sidoruk M. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2014;21(1):79-88. DOI: 10.2478/eces-2014-0007. [5] Szymczyk S, Grabińska B, Koc-Jurczyk J. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni in the waters of the Narew River and some of its tributaries. J Elem. 2007;12(3):199-205. [6

References Bakker, M.M., Govers, G. & Rounsevell, M.D.A. (2004). The crop productivity-erosion relationship: an analysis based on experimental work, Catena , 57, pp. 55–76. Boardman, J. & Poesen, J. (2006). Soil erosion in Europe: major processes, causes and consequences, in: Soil Erosion in Europe, Boardman, J. & Poesen, J. (Eds.). Wiley, Chichester 2006, pp. 479–487. Bytnerowicz, A., Godzik, S., Poth, M., Anderson, I., Szdzuj, J., Tobias, C., Macko, S., Kubiesa, P., Staszewski, T. & Fenn, M. (1999). Chemical composition of air, soil and vegetation in forests

Research 31: 128–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1552601 [5] Begin C and Filion L, 1988. Age of landslides along the Grande Rivitre de la Baleine estuary, eastern coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec (Canada). Boreas 17(3): 289–299, DOI 10.1111/j.1502-3885.1988.tb00959.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.1988.tb00959.x [6] Bodoque JM, Diez-Herrero A, Martin-Duque JF, Rubiales JM, Godfrey A, Pedraza J, Carrasco RM and Sanz MA, 2005. Sheet erosion rates determined by using dendrogeomorphological analysis of exposed tree roots: two examples from central Spain. Catena 64(1): 81

.1002/hyp.9461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9461 [5] Borisova O, Sidorchuk A and Panin A, 2006. Palaeohydrology of the Seim River basin, Mid-Russian Upland, based on palaeochannel morphology and palynological data. Catena 66(1–2): 53–73, DOI 10.1016/j.catena.2005.07.010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2005.07.010 [6] Bronk Ramsey C, 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1): 337–360. [7] Bronnikova MA and Uspenskaya ON, 2007. Pozdnegolocenovaya evolutcia rastitel’nosti i landshafta na teritorii Gnezdovskogo archeologicheskogo kompleksa