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Slovak Creativity Index – A PCA Based Approach

Abstract

The article aims at transferring the European Creativity Index (ECI) assessment from the country to regional comparison basis, focusing on the case of Slovakia. The newly created Slovak Creativity Index (SCI) has the power to assess the creativity potential found in the Slovak regions. The Principal Component Analysis has been chosen as an advanced method for establishing a well-designed overall Index and six sub-indices to show differences and variability according to all dimensions of the creative potential. The research also explains several relations between creative performance of the regions by several factors such as urbanisation, cultural environment, human capital and tolerance.

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Sustainability Evaluation of the European Union based on the Ecological Footprint

Abstract

Recent production and consumption activities impose a heavy burden on the Earth's current and future capacity. Therefore, it is inevitable to deal with the impacts of the economic activities on the natural resources which determine our future well-being and the survival by itself. The indicators reflecting impacts of regions and countries on the available resources are used in this Paper to operationalize the sustainable development concept. The Ecological Footprint, Total Biocapacity and their components are investigated in the European Union (EU) and its countries and the EU region is compared with the other regions of the world. The additional three developed countries – Norway, Switzerland and the United States (US), were included in the sample together with the EU countries to enable extended comparisons. The aim of the Paper is to evaluate sustainability in the EU and its countries by means of the Ecological Footprint and the available biocapacity and to detect the relations between the countries’ EF and their standard of living and human development level. Concerning the regions, the highest Ecological Footprint per capita is typical of North America followed by the EU region. The Northern countries show largest biocapacities and are thus the largest resource creditors. The worst results in the Ecological Footprint – biocapacity relations analysis are typical of Cyprus, Belgium, Netherlands and Italy. The cross-section regression models confirmed that, at least, in the sample of the developed countries the positive relations between the Ecological Footprint on the one hand and the standard of living / state of the human development on the other hand exist.

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Urban Greenery as a Component of Real Estate Value

Abstract

Due to the specific characteristics of cities, such as the intensity of the use of space, the supply of green areas is limited. These areas are subjected to constant pressure (demand for new transportation or construction functions), which usually results in their reduction. As a consequence of this, green areas have become a limited asset in urban environments. City dwellers, seeking a high quality of life in the urban environment, pay attention to the proximity of greenery to their place of residence. This is, therefore, a factor that greatly influences market prices of residential real estate. In the study, the dependency of transaction prices of residential premises on the vicinity of urban greenery was subjected to analysis. Additionally, questionnaire studies were conducted with respect to the evaluation of the significance of environmental factors when choosing a place to live, which translates over to the decisions made by consumers on the real estate market.

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Critical and Flow-Critical Snarks Coincide

Abstract

Over the past twenty years, critical and bicritical snarks have been appearing in the literature in various forms and in different contexts. Two main variants of criticality of snarks have been studied: criticality with respect to the non-existence of a 3-edge-colouring and criticality with respect to the non-existence of a nowhere-zero 4-flow. In this paper we show that these two kinds of criticality coincide, thereby completing previous partial results of de Freitas et al. [Electron. Notes Discrete Math. 50 (2015) 199–204] and Fiol et al. [Electron. J. Combin. 25 (2017) #P4.54].

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Does the Household Structure Influence Remuneration in Poland?

Abstract

The main income determinants are: general economic situation, individual attributes of employees and characteristics of the workplace. However, there are also family duties which affect economic activity and wages, mostly in case of women who are the main care providers to children, the elderly, handicapped or sick. The aim of our research is to find out if the structure of the households influences the monthly remuneration of employees in Poland. The investigation consists in estimation econometric models which describe monthly remuneration on the basis of the microdata. Research is provided for the sample of employees regardless of gender, separately for male and female employees, and for women in three age classes. The analysis based on econometric models enables to find out that on average: (1) male employees earn significantly more than females, (2) married women earn less than unmarried ones while in case of men the situation is the opposite, (3) the motherhood penalty exists in Poland and (4) care providers for the elderly are mostly women, and care duties influence mostly remuneration received by women aged 25-54.

Open access
Government Support and Firm Profitability in Vietnam

Abstract

Existing studies on the linkage between government subsidies and firm financial performance often use a mean regression approach and focus mainly on developed countries. To fill the gap, this study, for the first time, considers the impact of government support activities on the profitability of manufacturing SMEs in a developing country, Vietnam. Using an unbalanced panel dataset covering the period 2009–2015, government financial supports show an insignificant linkage with firm profitability when using OLS. However, a fixed-effect quantile approach reveals that government financial support is negatively related for firms with low profit but is positively related for firms in the high profitability percentile. Our findings also suggest that policymakers should focus on helping start-ups instead of ineffective, informal firms.

Open access
Managerial Discretion and Constraints: A Bounded Leadership Model

Abstract

Purpose: We propose and test a new leadership model. Our model is an extension of the leaderplex model which proposes that leader cognitive and social complexities are linked with leader effectiveness indirectly, in a mediation scheme, through behavioral complexity. We enhance the leader-plex model with a leader’s degree of managerial discretion as the moderator of the links in this mediation format.

Methodology: We test our model with a moderated mediation approach (Baron-Kenny four-step procedure and Preacher-Hayes bootstrapping methods).

Findings: We use results of interviews with top leaders in Poland and demonstrate that a leader’s managerial discretion is a moderator affecting the mediation scheme assumed in the leaderplex model.

Limitations: The sample size is only 29 leaders. To preserve the respondents’ anonymity, their opinions were evaluated by only one researcher who interviewed them directly. The results may be country specific (Poland).

Originality: We define new boundary conditions for the leaderplex model by showing importance of a leader’s real position (managerial discretion) in an organization. Specifically, we show that the nature of the relationships between the variables of interest will change when a leader operates in one physical environment (e.g., high managerial discretion) rather than another (e.g., low managerial discretion).

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Dynamics of Producing Renewable Energy in Poland and EU-28 Countries within the Period of 2004–2012

Abstract

The paper presents the estimation of trends describing the level of renewable energy resources in Poland and in EU-28 countries within the years 2004–2012. The process of the increase of the percentage of renewable energy in total production of energy was also presented. Comparative statistical analysis was carried out within the dynamics of the phenomena discussed in the paper with respect both to Poland and EU countries. It follows from the investigation that both in Poland and in the EU countries the increase in renewable energy resources has been observed. However, the rate of the increase of the level of renewable energy in Poland is not enough to catch up with the leading EU countries in near future.

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Handling heteroskedasticity in labour demand functions of athletes

Abstract

Based on previous research it can be stated that modelling sport economics related demand curves (e.g. demand for sport events and athletes) is different from other types of modelling. The difference lies in the fact that some parts of the demand curves are nearly horizontal in case of sport goods and nearly vertical in case of athletes, because the price of sport events is inflexible and at the same time, salaries of top athletes are extremely flexible. This study investigates parameter estimation methods appropriate for the relevant demand functions of sport economics. In this cases the generally used ordinary least squares estimator is less robust, so the weighted least squares estimators are able to handle heteroskedasticity. If the distribution of the variables is known, the Newey-West heteroscedasticity corrected estimates give even stronger results. The empirical study analyses footballer transfer fees in top European leagues and identifies a threshold at which the traditional supply-demand functions are not appropriate. According to the results, word class athletes, in a way, can be considered prestige goods for which demand may be irrational.

Open access
The FDI-Growth Nexus in South Africa: A Re-Examination Using Quantile Regression Approach

Abstract

This study sought to contribute to the growing empirical literature by investigating the effects of FDI on per capita GDP growth for South Africa using time series data collected between 1970 and 2016. Compared to the majority of previous studies, we use quantile regressions which investigates the effects of FDI on economic growth at different distributional quantiles. Puzzling enough, the empirical results show that FDI has a negative influence on welfare at extremely low quantiles whereas at other levels this effect turns insignificant. Contrary, the effects of domestic investment on welfare is positive and significant at all levels. Collectively, these results have important implications for policymakers in South Africa.

Open access