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Cloning and Expression of HBV Infection Related Novel Gene C12orf49

Abstract

Objective To clone, express and purify C12orf49 recombinant protein. To prepare rabbit anti-C12orf49 protein polyclonal antibody in order to further elucidate its biological function.

Methods PCR was used to amplify the gene C12orf49 in vitro. pET-32a (+)-C12orf49, the recombinant protein prokaryotic expression vector, was transformed into E. coli. IPTG was used as the inductive agent to obtain C12orf49 recombinant protein, and the recombinant protein was analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. Specific polyclonal antibody was derived from rabbits that immunized by recombinant protein. ELISA and Western blot were used to test its titer and specificity, respectively. MTT cell proliferation experiment was carried out to observe effect of the protein on proliferation of HepG2 cells.

Results The C12orf49 recombinant protein was expressed in a large quantity. Data of ELISA indicated that the titer of polyclonal antibody was higher than 1:1 280 000. And the antibody also had a good specificity, confirmed by Western blot. C12orf49 recombinant protein may had a advanced effect on the proliferation of HepG2 cells.

Conclusions Using C12orf49 recombinant protein, we can obtain the polyclonal antibody with great titer and good specificity. Human novel gene C12orf49 encoded protein could promote the proliferation of HepG2 cells.

Open access
Evolutions and equilibrium parameters of foam films from individual solutions of Bovine serum albumin, n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside and from their mixed solutions

Abstract

The evolutions of thinning of films from individual solutions of BSA, C12G2 and from their mixed solutions with molar ratios 1:1, 1:7.5, 1:50 and 1:100 with pH = 4.9 were recorded by modified (with video camera) interferometric method. Based on them the stages through which the film goes from its formation to the equilibrium state were distinguished. It was shown that: (i) the difference between the kinetic of drainage of films stabilized by high and low molecular surfactants is drastic; (ii) only the change of the pH solution under or above isoelectric point strongly retards the film drainage; (iii) the transition of the kinetic of thinning of films from mixed solutions from a kinetic typical for high molecular substances towards a kinetic for low substances depends on the molar ratio between the components in the solution. From the picture of film corresponding to its equilibrium state the type of film was determined. From the analysis of this picture the equilibrium thickness and contact angle were calculated. It was found that the criterion for Newtonium black films (based on the values of film thickness and contact angle) is not directly applicable for films from protein solutions or mixed solutions with the participation of proteins.

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Critical thickness of foam films stabilized by nonionic, ionic surfactants and their mixtures

Abstract

The critical thickness (hcr) for foam films of n-dodecyl β-D maltoside (C12G2) and of its mixed solutions with dodecanol (C12Е0), hexaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether (C12E6) and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C12TAB) of different molar ratio (50:1; 1:1;1:50) at low and high ionic strength was measured interferometrically. It was found that the hcr increases with the increase of the film radius independently of solutions composition. At low ionic strength the type of surfactant affects the critical thickness and the equilibrium state of the film. hcr for the films of mixture with C12E0 increases with the increase of the total surfactant concentration, while hcr for the films of mixture with C12TAB decreases. For the values of the critical thicknesses for films from individual surfactant solutions the following sequence hcr (C12TAB) > hcr (C12E6) > hcr (C12G2) is found. At high ionic strength the quantity of nonionic additive does not substantially affect the value of hcr, while the quantity of ionic additive influences it by two different ways (i) in 50:1 mixture C12TAB supports C12G2 in the reducing of negative charge; (ii) in 1:1 mixture C12TAB recharges the film surfaces.

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Triameter of Graphs

Abstract

In this paper, we study a new distance parameter triameter of a connected graph G, which is defined as max{d(u; v)+d(v;w)+d(u;w) : u; v;w ∈ V }and is denoted by tr(G). We find various upper and lower bounds on tr(G) in terms of order, girth, domination parameters etc., and characterize the graphs attaining those bounds. In the process, we provide some lower bounds of (connected, total) domination numbers of a connected graph in terms of its triameter. The lower bound on total domination number was proved earlier by Henning and Yeo. We provide a shorter proof of that. Moreover, we prove Nordhaus-Gaddum type bounds on tr(G) and find tr(G) for some specific family of graphs.

Open access
The Smallest Harmonic Index of Trees with Given Maximum Degree

Abstract

The harmonic index of a graph G, denoted by H(G), is defined as the sum of weights 2/[d(u) + d(v)] over all edges uv of G, where d(u) denotes the degree of a vertex u. In this paper we establish a lower bound on the harmonic index of a tree T.

Open access
What Explains the Size of Sovereign Wealth Funds?

Abstract

Reasons for the rapid appearance and growth of SWFs is contributed by increase in oil prices and the accumulation of large balance-of-payments surpluses.

Purpose of the article is to investigate size of observed Sovereign Wealth Funds in 2013. Moreover, to describe what explain differences in the size of SWFs, on the other hand what determines the amount of foreign exchange reserves. Is the size of observed funds closely related to rate of growth of the countries? Is return of observed funds is closely related to fund value bn USD, GDP growth (annual %) and inflation rate of the country?

Methodology/methods deployed in this paper has been done illustrations by using available data from official websites of funds, Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute, International Monetary Fund, CIA The World Factbook and author’s calculations due the fact that most of funds do not provide data to the public. In addition to this, we present the estimations by using regression analysis, transferring observed data using the least squares method, The two-sample t-test for mean value, ANOVA, TINV.

Scientific aim is to examine whether AUM of SWFs, moreover the size of 14 observed funds is closely related to rate of growth of the countries at 90 percent of probability. Second, if return of 14 observed funds is closely related to fund value bn USD, GDP growth (annual %) and inflation rate of the country at 95 percent of probability. Third, if there are significant differences between return in 2010 and 2013.

Findings indicates that paper came to the conclusion that the return of 14 observed funds is closely related to fund value bn USD, GDP growth (annual %) and inflation rate of the country at 95 percent of probability. Furthermore, there are significant differences between return in 2010 and 2013.

Conclusions (limits, implications etc) pointed out that the influence of SWFs has become undeniable, with total assets topping 6,585tn USD in June 2014, these investors have reached a size comparable to that of the entire alternative assets industry.

Open access
Georgian Consumer Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Products

Abstract

Genetically modified products (GM) have been sensitive topic in different societies. This paper looks at (GM) from one consumer group’s perspective; specifically, from the Ajara region of Georgia in February 2014. A survey of 603 consumers revealed that these respondents knew very little about genetic engineering but held a negative attitude towards GM products, expected the government to regulate both their import and production, and wanted GM to be identified as such. Even if priced lower than comparable foodstuffs, most consumers would not buy them. An empirical investigation based on analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficient demonstrated that education, income and social class were significant determinants of genetic engineering awareness among consumers, while age had no impact.

Open access
The Degree-Diameter Problem for Outerplanar Graphs

Abstract

For positive integers Δ and D we define n Δ,D to be the largest number of vertices in an outerplanar graph of given maximum degree Δ and diameter D. We prove that nΔ,D=ΔD2+O(ΔD21) is even, and nΔ,D=3ΔD12+O(ΔD121) if D is odd. We then extend our result to maximal outerplanar graphs by showing that the maximum number of vertices in a maximal outerplanar graph of maximum degree Δ and diameter D asymptotically equals n Δ,D.

Open access
Asymptotic Behavior of the Edge Metric Dimension of the Random Graph

Abstract

Given a simple connected graph G(V,E), the edge metric dimension, denoted edim(G), is the least size of a set SV that distinguishes every pair of edges of G, in the sense that the edges have pairwise different tuples of distances to the vertices of S. In this paper we prove that the edge metric dimension of the Erdős-Rényi random graph G(n, p) with constant p is given by

edim(G(n,p))=(1+o(1))4lognlog(1/q),

where q = 1 − 2p(1 − p)2(2 − p).

Open access
2-Distance Colorings of Integer Distance Graphs

Abstract

A 2-distance k-coloring of a graph G is a mapping from V (G) to the set of colors {1,. . ., k} such that every two vertices at distance at most 2 receive distinct colors. The 2-distance chromatic number χ 2(G) of G is then the smallest k for which G admits a 2-distance k-coloring. For any finite set of positive integers D = {d 1, . . ., d}, the integer distance graph G = G(D) is the infinite graph defined by V (G) = ℤ and uvE(G) if and only if |vu| ∈ D. We study the 2-distance chromatic number of integer distance graphs for several types of sets D. In each case, we provide exact values or upper bounds on this parameter and characterize those graphs G(D) with χ2(G(D)) = ∆(G(D)) + 1.

Open access