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The genetic structure of crucian carps colonies in Ukrainian water bodies was defined by gene marking. The sexual structure and ploidy were investigated, the duration of spawners maturation, life-span, rate of growth and the linear growth of independent species and biotypes were defined. The comparative biological analysis showed that virtually all the researched crucian carps had low linear growth index and early maturation terms. Th e hybrid individuals of C. auratus-C. carassius during the first years of life were characterized by the high rate of growth which was most likely determined by the “hybrid power” which is kept by this biotype only within the starting phase of existence, after which the active growth is significantly reduced. Th e individual biological peculiarities of peculiar species and biotypes of crucian carps do not depend on their genetic nature but in most cases are defined by the external living conditions.

References Gromov, I. A., 1987. Oogenesis and plasticity spawning eastern carp Cyprinus Carpio Haematopterus , Biology of freshwater fishes of the Far East. Sb. nauchnich trudov . DVO AN SSSR, Vladivostok, 1–192. Goriunova, A. I., 1960. About breeding of goldfish. Voprocy Ychtiologii , 7 (15), 106–110. Mezhzherin, S. V., Lisetskii, I. L., 2004 a. Natural Hybridization between Silver Prussian Carp ( Carassius auratus ) and Crucian Carp ( C. carassius ): Evolutionary Phenomena or Absorption of One Species by Another? Dopov. Nats. Akad. Nauk Ukr. , 9, 162

Carassius auratus and C. carassius : evolutionary phenomenon or absorption of one species by the other? Dopovidi Natsionalnoyi Akademiyi Nauk Ukrayini, 9, 162–166 [In Russian]. Mezhzherin, S. V., Lisetsky, I. L. 2004 c. The genetic structure of European goldfish Carassius auratus s. lato (Cyprinidae) in Ukrainian water bodies: an analysis of bisexual samples. Biology Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Science, 6, 689–697 [In Russian]. Mezhzherin, S. V., Kokodiy, S. V. 2006. On the polyphilia of European triploid crucian carp Carassius gibelio. Dopovidi

hybridization of Goldfish ( Carassius auratus ) and Crucian carp ( C. carassius ): an evolutionary phenomenon or the absorption of one species by another? Dopovіdі NAS of Ukraine , 9, 162–166 [In Russian]. Mezhzherin, S. V., Kokodiy, S. V., Kulish, A. V., Puhtaevich, P. P. 2015. The bipolarity of the genetic structure of the common beetle (Carassius Linnaeus, 1758) as a reflection of paradoxical reproductive relationships. Cytology and genetics, 49 (42), 66–71. Mezhzherin, S. V. 2008. Animal Resources of Ukraine in the Light of the Strategy of Sustainable Development: An

Comparison of seasonal activity of the lake minnow, Eupallasella percnurus (Pall.), and crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), in small water bodies in northern Poland

This paper presents preliminary results of a comparison of the seasonal activity of lake minnows, Eupallasella percnurus (Pall.), and crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), in a few small water bodies. Field studies were conducted based on catches made with baited traps in periods without ice cover from April to December 2006. E. percnurus became active earlier than did C. carassius and their period of intense activity was longer. The first E. percnurus appeared in the traps in early April when the ice was still melting, and these fish were caught at a temperature range of 3.5-29.2°C. C. carassius were caught most abundantly in the beginning of May at temperatures from 15°C; this species was usually noted in traps at a narrower, but higher, temperature range in comparison with the E. percnurus. Additionally, the activity of both these species was similar with regard to weather conditions; both species were less active on cloudy days and when atmospheric pressure was increasing.