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[1] Abelleira, A., Picoaga, A., Mansilla, J. P., Aguin, O. (2011): Detection of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causal agent of pine wilt disease on Pinus pinaster in Northwestern Spain. Plant Dis., 95: 776–776. DOI: 10.1094/pdis-12-10-0902 http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-10-0902 [2] Aikawa, T., Kikuchi, T. (2007): Estimation of virulence of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) based on its reproductive ability. Nematology, 9: 371–377 http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854107781352007 [3] Aikawa, T., Kikuchi, T., Kosaka, H. (2003): Demonstration of

[1] Akbulut, S., Vieira, P., Ryss, A., Yuskel, B., Keten, A., Mota, M., Valadas, V. (2006): Preliminary survey of the pinewood nematode in Turkey. EPPO Bull., 36: 538–542 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2006.01056.x [2] Akbulut, S., Braasch, H., Baysal, I., Brandstetter, M., Burgermeister, W. (2007): Description of Bursaphelenchus anamurius sp. n.(Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) from Pinus brutia in Turkey. Nematology, 9: 859–867 http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854107782331207 [3] Ambrogioni, L., Caroppo, S. (1998): Morphology and morphometrics of Italian

[1] Altschul, S. F., Madden, T. L., Schäffer, A. A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W., Lipman D. J. (1997): Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res., 25: 3389–3402 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/25.17.3389 [2] Braasch, H. (1998): Aphelenchoides stammeri Körner, 1954 — ein in Deutschland weit verbreiteter Holznematode. Nachrichtenbatt des Deutschen. Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 50: 317–319 [3] Braasch, H. (1998): Bursaphelenchus hofmanni sp. n. (Nematoda, Aphelnchoididae) from spruce wood in Germany

References Abelleira, A., Picoaga, A., Mansilla, J. P. et al., 2011: Detection of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causal agent of pine wilt disease on Pinus pinaster in northwestern Spain. Plant disease 95: 776. Anonymous, 2012: Zelená správa, Správa o lesnom hospodárstve v Slovenskej republike za rok 2011. Dostupné na internete: http://www.mpsr.sk/index.php?navID=123&id=7199. Barok, S., 2013: Opatrenia akčne plány, legislatíva a doterajšie výsledky monitoringu háďatka borovicového v SR. In: Kunca, A. (ed.): Aktuálne problemy v ochrane lesa 2013. Zborník referátov

Bursaphelenchus insect-vector species in the western part of Turkey. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 18:215–224. d’Errico, G., Carletti, B., Schröder, T., Mota, M., Vieira, P., Roversi, P. F., 2015: An update on the occurrence of nematodes belonging to the genus Bursaphelenchus in the Mediterranean area. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 88:509–520. Eidmann, H. H., Nuorteva, M., 1968: Der Einfluss der Siedlungsdichte und anderer Faktoren auf die Anzahl der Nachkommen von Blustophagus piniperda L. Ann. Ent. Fenn., 34

galloprovincialis . Journal of Applied Entomology, 140: 58–71. David, G., Giffard, B., Piou, D., Jactel, H., 2014: Dispersal capacity of Monochamus galloprovincialis , the European vector of the pine wood nematode, on flight mills. Journal of Applied Entomology, 138:566–576. Edwards, J. S., 2006: The central nervous control of insect flight. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209:4411–4413. EPPO, 2011: Situation of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal. EPPO Reporting Service 04-2011: https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-186 . EPPO, 2014: New outbreak of Bursaphelenchus

Abstract

The reproductive success of pollen derived from selected and non-selected sources and its impact on the performance of orchard crops were evaluated, using five pairs of microsatellite markers, in a Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) clonal seed orchard consisting of 16 nematode-resistant clones. The paternity of each open-pollinated seed was determined by comparing the genotypes of seeds from six clones (24 trees) with genotypes of the 16 orchard clones and two trees (N1, N2) representing other genotypes that had been inadvertently included in the orchard. Out of 384 seeds examined, the paternity of 316 seeds (82.3%) was assigned to the clones within the seed orchard. On average, the male reproductive success of orchard clones varied from 0.0% to 10.5%, and was significantly related to the male-flowering fecundity of each clone. It was not related to the synchrony of flowering phenology between mates. The expected proportions of seeds produced by clonal trees as a result of pollination by orchard clones, and by contaminating pollen originating from internal and external sources were estimated at 86.8%, 3.3% and 9.9%, respectively. Nematode-resistant seedlings of Japanese black pine were produced from surviving 2-yr seedlings that had previously been inoculated with pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). Without pollen contamination, the survival rate of seedlings produced by mating between resistant clones is expected to be 62.4%. However, in this orchard the figure was reduced to 57.5%, due to pollen contamination from both internal and external sources.

-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown clades. Mol. Biol. Evol., 23: 1792–1800. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/mls044 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msl044 [8] Hooper, D. J. (1974): Aphelenchus avenae. C.I.H. descriptions of plant-parasitic nematodes, 4: 193–196 [9] Hunt, D. J. (1993): Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: Their systematics and bionomics. CABI, UK [10] Kanzaki, N., Giblin-davis, R. M., Cardoza, Y.J., Ye, W. M, Raffa, K. F., Center, B. J. (2008). Bursaphelenchus rufipennis n. sp

Europe. The Forestry Chronicle, 70 (5), 550-554. Bonamonte, D., Foti, C., Vestita, M., Angelini, G. 2013. Skin reactions to pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff. The Scientific World Journal. DOI: 10.1155/2013/867431. Braasch, H. 2001. Bursaphelenchus species in conifers in Europe: distribution and morphological relationship. EPPO Bulletin, 31, 127-142. Bystrowski, C., Wójcik, G. 2009. Use of neonicotinoid insecticides for the protection of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) acorns in the seed orchard in the Leżajsk Forest District. Leśne Prace

xylophagous beetles, potential vectors of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to semio-chemicals in Slovenia. Phytoparasitica, 40 (4), 337-349. Knížek, M. 2009. Faunistic records from the Czech Republic - 272. Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae. Klapalekiana, 45, 22. López, S., Iturrondobeitia, J.C., Goldarazena, A. 2007. Primera cita en la Península Ibérica de Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch, 1858) y Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford, 1894) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Boletín Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa, 40, 527-532. Lorenz, J. 2005. Neu- und Wiederfunde von Käferarten (Col