Numerical analysis of the tensioning cables anchorage zone of a bridge superstructure is presented in this paper. It aims to identify why severe concrete cracking occurs during the tensioning process in the vicinity of anchor heads. In order to simulate the tensioning, among others, a so-called local numerical model of a section of the bridge superstructure was created in the Abaqus Finite Element Method (FEM) environment. The model contains all the important elements of the analyzed section of the concrete bridge superstructure, namely concrete, reinforcement and the anchoring system. FEM analyses are performed with the inclusion of both material and geometric nonlinearities. Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) constitutive relation from Abaqus is used to describe nonlinear concrete behaviour, which enables analysis of concrete damage and crack propagation. These numerical FEM results are then compared with actual crack patterns, which have been spotted and inventoried at the bridge construction site.
The local scour around bridge piers influences their stabilities and plays a key role in the bridge failures. The estimation of the maximum possible scour depth around bridge piers is an important step in the design of the bridge pier foundations. In this study, the temporal evolution of local scour depths as well as the equilibrium scour depths were analyzed.
The experiments were carried out in a rectangular flume by using uniform sediment with median diameter of 3.5 mm and geometric standard deviation of 1.4. The diameters of the tested circular bridge piers were 40 mm, 80 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm. The flow and scour depths were determined by ultrasonic sensors. The experiments were realized in clear water conditions with various constant flow rates.
The experimental findings were compared with those calculated from some empirical equations existing in the literature. A new empirical relation involving the flow intensity, the relative water depth and the dimensionless time is also introduced. The advantage of this proposed relation is that the only parameter requiring the calculation is the critical velocity, other parameters being known geometric and hydraulic parameters. The performance of this relation was tested by using experimental data available in the literature, and a satisfactory compatibility was revealed between the experimental and numerical results.