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ADONIS:CE has been used as a base to create a support-system management decision-making model for Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) species. Investigation of the habitat necessities and the identification of the necessary elements for a good status of conservation of these two fish species populations has revealed the pressures and threats to these congener species, for which specific management activities have been finally recommended.

References Balon E.K. 1985 - Early life histories of fishes: new developmental, ecological, and evolutionary perspectives - Developments in Environ. Biol. Fish., Dr Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 280 p. Bogacka E. 2005 - Relationship of species structure, lake zooplankton, and food spectrum of fry in lakes Dołgie Wielkie and Goławskie - doctoral dissertation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (in Polish). Bogacka-Kapusta E., Kapusta A. 2007 - The diet of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), and bleak, Alburnus alburnus (L.) larvae and fry in the shallow littoral

United Kingdom: A Social Science Perspective , 25 E nergy R es . S oc . S ci . 9–18 (2017); Priaulx & Weinel, supra note 8 . our study also underpins the importance of attending to a field's internal constituents in terms of their ‘imagined’ beliefs about how their own field might be regarded by ‘outsiders’. While our analysis of the literature and the responses of our legal academic participants suggest that imagination, rather than empirical reality, plays a significant role in shaping these bleak ideas, these imaginaries can help us to uncover aspects of


The present article attempts to portray a rather bleak personality of Puritan New England, Minister Michael Wigglesworth, who had in his time great influence on his community ipso facto. Mr. Doomsday, as he was called, kept a diary that reveals the abyss that a Puritan soul could fall into while struggling for perfection, which was unbreakable communion with God.


The enlargement of the European Union (EU) led to an increase in regional development differences, challenging the EU structural policy. Whilst there are numerous papers discussing international and cross-EU development convergence, the issue seems under-researched at national level, especially when small territorial units are considered. This paper aims to partially fill this gap by using low aggregation (Local Administrative Unit 1, LAU1) territorial data between 2002 and 2013 a period that comprises Hungary’s EU accession and also the years of the recent Global Financial Crisis. We employ a novel approach to circumvent the lack of income, productivity or competitiveness data at LAU1 level by deriving two Regional Development Indices (RDI) resting on the estimation of internal migration functions. Once the RDIs are estimated, we proceed to a test sigma, beta and unit root convergence. Our results point towards regional divergence with rather bleak consequences for Hungarian and indeed European cohesion aims.

Metazoan Parasite Fauna of Fish Species from Lake Kortowskie

Parasitological studies of fish from Lake Kortowskie were carried out from 2001 to 2004. In the current study, 381 fish representing ten species: perch, Perca fluviatilis L., bleak, Alburnus alburnus (L.), ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.), silver bream, Abramis bjoercna (L.), pike, Esox lucius L., common gudgeon, Gobio gobio (L.), tench, Tinca tinca (L.), rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.), bream, Abramis brama (L.) and roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.) were examined. The aim of the study was to review the parasites of selected fish species and to compare the infestation of bream, perch, and rudd in 1984-88, 1994 and 2001-2003. A total of 51 species of parasites belonging to Monogenea (27), Digenea (6), Cestoda (7), Nematoda (4), Acanthocephala (3), Crustacea (3), and Molusca (1) were recorded. The largest numbers of parasite species were found in roach (18), followed by bleak (14), perch and silver bream (13), bream (11), ruffe and pike (10), and the fewest in common gudgeon (4) and tench and rudd (2). Tetraonchus monenteron, Triaenophorus nodulosus, Ergasilus sieboldi, and molluscs glochidia occurred in 83.3% of the pike. Comparing the bream, perch, and rudd infestation parameters of over twenty years with the current results, it can be concluded that the changes are linked to environmental changes that have occurred as a consequence of the Lake Kortowskie experiment.


The aim of the present study was to detect the antibacterial activity of medicinal plants against fish microflora. A total of 4 ethanolic extracts of 6 plant species were collected from local environments of Slovakia and screened for antibacterial activity against bacterial microflora. Extracts of Melissa officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Origanum vulgare L. and Malva mauritiana were used. Bacterial strains were isolated from common bleak (Alburnus alburnus) and common rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) of Latvian origin. All bacterial strains were identified with the Matrix- Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Among fish microflora, Acinetobacter pittii, A. baumannii, Buttiauxella agrestis, Delftia acidovorans, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Ps. oryzihabitans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, St. caprae, Pantoea agglomerans, Lelliottia amnigena, Providencia rettgeri, Escherichia coli and Rahnella aquatilis were identified. It has been shown that all plant extracts exhibit different degrees of antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria. All bacterial strains in the present study were moderate sensitive to all extracts applied. The strongest antimicrobial effect of Malva mauritiana and Melissa officinalis L. against Pseudomonas oryzihabitans (6.67±1.53 resp. 9.67±0.58 mm) were found. The best antimicrobial activity of Mentha piperita L. was against Staphylococcus epidermis (7.33±0.58 mm) and strongest antimicrobial effect of Origanum vulgare L. was same against two bacterial strains Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia liquefaciens (9.67±0.58 mm).

Early bilingualism: children of immigrants in an English-language childcare center

In this study, language views and home language practice of sixteen immigrant parents were documented and related to the dual language behaviors of their young children (ages 1:09 to 3;06) who were enrolled in a Toronto English-language childcare center. De Houwer's (1999) model of early bilingualism was applied to the minority language context and external factors were used to explain the short-lived active bilingualism of the younger children and the passive bilingualism of the preschoolers. Presenting mothers and fathers with separate questionnaires proved to be a valuable methodological tool, which revealed similar language thinking but different home language practice. Immigrant mothers were more committed to their children's L1 development than were fathers, a finding, which supports and extends the parental gender difference noted in earlier work (Gleason, 2005; Lyon, 1991; Lyon & Ellis, 1999). Negative effects of early L2 exposure on minority language children's incomplete L1, reported in earlier studies, were confirmed. A concrete outcome of the present study was the creation, a website intended to help immigrant parents understand their children's dual language learning. Even though the study presents a somewhat bleak picture of the continuation of L1, it concludes on an optimistic note, encouraging immigrant fathers to join forces with their L1-committed spouses and to help provide a nurturing L1 environment for their young children.


It has been asserted that preaching in the first half of the twenty-first century is in crisis by the authors of Engaging Preaching. This crisis has arisen, so say the authors, due in part to those who have been entrusted to preach the ‘oracles of God’ (1 Peter 4:11), having failed to faithfully proclaim the Word of the Lord. No longer do the words of ‘Thus saith the Lord’, regularly fill the halls of the sanctuary. Instead of a sure word from the Bible, those in attendance are just as likely to give tips on self-fulfillment or achieving one’s dreams. By this practice, it seems there are a significant number of pulpit practitioners who neither trust in the authority or the sufficiency of the Word of God. The situation seems bleak, but there is a remedy to be applied to this situation. Carl F. H. Henry has left us a wealth of theological writings that speak to this very problem. This paper will argue as Henry has masterfully argued for the authority of Scripture, the preacher finds a sure footing for a pulpit practice that displays the authority and the sufficiency of the Bible. It will be argued that expositional preaching is the most natural response to a robust view of the authority and sufficiency of the Word of God.


Oxalate concentration differs in various daily consumed food products. The role of oxalic acid in the human body is very significant, as its compounds are responsible for the stability of biological membranes. However, insoluble calcium and magnesium oxalates can be accumulated in the body in the form of kidney stones. Oxalate concentration has been measured by high performance liquid, gas after derivatization and ion chromatography (IC). The most effective method for the simultaneous determination of oxalate and inorganic anions is ion chromatography with conductometric detection. Here, we report the results of the measurement of oxalic acid in bleak and green tea samples. Separation was performed by IC on an anion-exchange column Shodex IC SI-90 with surface-layer sorbent and conductimetric detection. The main analytical features of the method were: limit of detection of oxalic acid 0.03 mg/l, linear range 0.1-20 mg/l, correlation 0.9998, relative standard deviation 1%. The method did not need specific sample treatment and was successfully applied to the analysis of black and green tea samples. Oxalic acid was determined in the ranges 16.7-84 mg/l for green tea and 63-116 mg/l for black tea. Green tea contained lower oxalate ions concentration than black tea. The IC method has a lower detection limit for oxalate ions than HPLS and GC, ten and two times less, respectively