Juraiporn Somboonwong, Khunkhong Huchaiyaphum, Onanong Kulaputana and Phisit Prapunwattana
Monounsaturated fat (MUFA) also has glucose-lowering action, but its effect on ketone bodies is unknown.
To examine the effects of high-MUFA diet alone or in combination with exercise training, which can improve glucose and ketone body metabolism, in a rat model of diabetes.
Wistar rats were administered streptozotocin to induce diabetes and then randomly divided into five groups: sedentary rats fed a regular diet (1), a high-saturated-fat diet (2), a high-MUFA diet (3); and exercisetrained rats fed a regular diet (4), and a high-MUFA diet (5). Training was by a treadmill twice daily, 5 days/week. At 12 weeks, glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate levels were measured in cardiac blood. Activity of the overall ketone synthesis pathway was determined in liver and 3-ketoacyl-CoA transferase activity determined in gastrocnemius muscle.
A high-MUFA diet tended to lower plasma glucose without affecting other biochemical variables. Training did not change glucose metabolism, but significantly reduced serum NEFA. Only the high-MUFA diet plus training significantly decreased HbA1c levels. Hepatic ketone synthesis was decreased and 3-ketoacyl-CoA transferase activity was increased by training alone or in combination with a high-MUFA diet. Changes in NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and the enzymatic activities in response to training plus a high-MUFA diet were comparable to those caused by training alone.
A high-MUFA diet alone does not alter ketone body metabolism. Combination of a MUFA-rich diet and exercise training is more effective than either MUFA or exercise alone for lowering HbA1c.
Hatice Esra Çolakoğlu, Murat Onur Yazlık, Mert Pekcan, Ufuk Kaya, Cihan Kaçar, Mehmet Rıfat Vural, Serdal Kurt, Merve Menekse Yildirim, Ahmet Bas and Şükrü Küplülü
The objectives of this study were to determine the role of a fall in pre-calving body condition score (BCS) in postpartum metabolic status and reproductive outcomes, and gauge the indicativeness of blood metabolites during the transition period.
Material and Methods
Cows were grouped based on BCS loss between days −14 ±3 and 0 relative to calving. Cows that lost no BCS were the BCS control group (BCS-C), cows that lost 0.25 BCS points the low BCS loss group (BCS-L), and those that lost 0.5 points or more the high BCS loss (BCS-H) group. Blood was taken on days −14 ±3, 3, 14, and 30 ±4 for determination of comprehensive metabolic panel biomarker levels. Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) levels were quantified on postpartum examination days. Vaginal discharge scores, ovarian activity on day 30 ±4, and subsequent fertility parameters were evaluated.
The BCS-H cows had lower mean Ca concentrations before calving and on day 3, when the group’s BHBA and CK were higher (P < 0.05); on day 14 they had higher AST concentrations (P < 0.05). The BCS-L cows had greater bilirubin levels (P < 0.05). The BCS-H cows had lower cyclicity and higher endometritis rates. First service pregnancy rates were 50%, 50%, and 61.9%, open days 96.8, 95.75, and 89.2, and overall pregnancy rates 56.25%, 65%, and 80.95 % in the BCS-H, BCS-L, and BCS-C groups, respectively.
Prepartum BCS loss of ≥ 0.5 points could be associated with Brown Swiss cow low Ca and BHBA concentrations early postpartum, and with subsequent uterine health and overall pregnancy rate. Prepartum Ca concentration might be a prognostic biomarker for postpartum metabolic status and reproductive outcomes.
Influence of Pre- and Postpartum Supplementation of Fibrolytic Enzymes and Yeast Culture, or Both, on Performance and Metabolic Status of Dairy Cows
The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which feeding total mixed rations (TMR) with fibrolytic enzymes and/or live yeast cultures to periparturient dairy cows will affect feed intake and conversion, milk yield and chemical composition, and metabolic and reproductive parameters of the cows. The experiment was conducted from 3 weeks before calving to 10 weeks of lactation on 36 Polish Red-and-White Holstein-Friesian (PHF Red) cows assigned to four analogous groups, 9 animals each. Cows from the control group (C) were fed an unsupplemented diet, those from group E received a diet supplemented (15 g/day) with enzyme preparation (Fibrozyme™) containing a blend of active xylanase and cellulase, cows from group D a diet with yeast preparation (Yea - Sacc1026) supplemented (10 g/day) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026 live yeast culture, and cows from group ED were fed a diet supplemented with a mixture (25 g/day) of both feed additives. The preparations were added to the concentrate included in the TMR diet. It was found that groups E and D showed a tendency towards higher dry matter and nutrient intake compared to group C. In groups E, D and ED there was also a tendency towards higher milk yield (by about 4-12% in the first 3 weeks of lactation) and slightly higher crude protein content (by an average of 0.16, 0.09 and 0.04 percentage units, respectively), without a clear effect on the other milk constituents. Significantly (P<0.05) lower milk urea content was also noted in group E compared to group C. Cows from groups E and D compared to group C, were characterized by better (P<0.05) efficiency of feed and nutrient conversion for kg milk production, especially during the first three weeks after calving. The experimental cows also showed a tendency towards improved blood metabolic profile, especially decreased levels of beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and reduced activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The investigated preparations had no significant effect on the body weight, body condition and reproductive parameters of the cows.
E. Papadopoulos, V. Mavrogianni, A. Mitsoura, S. Ptochos, S. Spanos and G. Fthenakis
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