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1 Introduction The most important and pivotal part of any structure is the foundation. That’s why, it is crucial to know the type of the soil, its behaviour, and bearing capacity. Several studies have led to a considerable progress as far as the understanding of ‘the shallow foundation’s behaviour under applied loads’ is concerned. However, the conventional method of footing design requires ample security against breakdown. So, to reach the target goal, the bearing capacity of soil must be the main concern in any foundation design and the settlement has to be put

References 1. BARYŁKA J., Collapses in Poland caused by climatic phenomena (in Polish). GUNB, Warszawa 30.09.2009. www.koalicjaklimatyczna.org/lang/pl/page/ conference materials /id/8/. 2. GWÓŻDŻ M., MACHOWSKI A., Selected Problems and Building Structure Calculations with Probabilistic Methods (in Polish). Wyd. Politechniki Krakowskiej, Kraków 2011. 3. DZIUBDZIELA W., KOPOCIŃSKI B., KOWAL Z., Ultimate bearing capacity of structural systems with minimal critical sets having connection elements in pairs. Archives of Mechanics 25, 5 / 1973, pp. 719-731. 4

References AL-BITTAR T., SOUBRA A.H., 2013, Bearing capacity of strip footings on spatially random soils using sparse polynomial chaos expansion, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 37 (13), 2039-2060. FENTON G.A., GRIFFITHS D.V., 2003, Bearing-capacity prediction of spatially random cφ soils, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 40 (1), 54-65. FENTON G.A., VANMARCKE E.H., 1990, Simulation of random fields via local average subdivision, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 116(8), 1733-1749. GRIFFITHS D.V., FENTON G.A., 2001

in sand” in: the 11th National Convention on Civil Engineering , Phuket, Thailand. Kuvigidgraru, S., 2001. Soil Investigation: Boring, Sampling and Field Test. Kasetsart University Press, Bangkok, Thailand. Kererat, C., 2012. “Manual of soil mechanics laboratory” Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin, Prachuap Khirikhan. Meyerhof, G.G., 1956. Penetration tests and bearing capacity of cohesionless soils. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division , 82 (1), pp. 1-19.

Konserwatorskie 26/2009, pp. 565-573. 5. Z. KOWAL, The formation of space bar structures supported by the system reliability theory. Arch.pf Civil and Mechanical Engineering.Vol. XI. No. 1.2011. Polish Ac. of Sciences - Wrocław Branch., Wrocław Univ. of Technology. 6. Z. KOWAl, Hazards associated with the load-bearing capacity of bar space structures during assembly and performance. Promysłowe budiwnyctwo ta inżenerni sporudy. Kiev 2011, No 3. pp. 34-40. 7. Z. KOWAL, Dimensioning Bar Joints in Trusses from the Structure Reliability Standpoint (in Polish). Conference paper

REFERENCES AASHTO (2012) LRFD Bridge Design Specifications , American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, USA. BS EN 1997-1:2004 (2004) Geotechnical design Part 1: General rules . Eurocode 7. British Standards Institute. https://doi.org/10.1680/igeng.1997.28998 Cederstrom, E. (2014) Application of Probabilistic Methods in Slope Stability Calculations , Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden 2014:91. Chew, Y. M. – Ng, K. S. – Ng, S. F. (2015) The effect of soil variability on the ultimate bearing capacity

1 Introduction Incorporating spatial variability of soil and rock masses has recently become an important subject for geotechnical engineers’ interest. In recent times, probabilistic approaches are being used in many fields of geotechnical engineering like tunnelling (e.g., Lu et al., 2018 ; Pan and Dias, 2018 ; Chen et al., 2019 ) or deep excavations (e.g., Ching et al., 2017 ; Goh et al., 2019 ). Popularity of probabilistic approaches is also visible in the case of shallow foundations bearing capacity estimations. The direct reason for this interest is the

State University, p. 158. Sivakumar, G. L., Murthy, B., and Nataraj, M. S. (2004). “Bearing capacity improvement using micropiles: A case study”. Proceedings, Geosupport Conference, pp. 692-699. Armin W. Stuedlein, Matt D. Gibson, Garry E. Horvitz (2008) Hart Crowser, Inc. Seattle, Washington (USA) 98109.” Tension and compression micropile load test in gravelly sand”. 6th international conference on case histories in geotechnical engineering in Arlington, VA, August 11-16, 2008. Juran, I., Bruce, D.A., Dimillio, A., and Benslimane, A. (1999). “Micropiles: the state of

1 Introduction In recent years, the development of the construction sector in Algeria has rapidly evolved. However, urban projects and structures are still concentrated in densely populated areas. This means that the foundations, which are the lowest parts of civil engineering works, transmit the applied loads to the soil or lower rock. The vast majority of relevant studies focus on the bearing capacity of an isolated foundation in homogeneous soil. Additionally, existing studies – namely the studies of Vesic, [ 25 ] Terzaghi, [ 22 ] Meyerhof, [ 17 ] and

Highlights – Detailed presentation of setup phenomenon in granular sand and contributing mechanisms – Detailed presentation of setup prediction models in granular sand – Demonstration of lower bound, best estimate bound and upper bound for setup prediction – Compilation of case histories of setup for driven open ended pile in granular soil and validation of lower estimate, best estimate and upper estimate zone 1 Introduction Pile setup is defined as the increase of axial pile bearing capacity with time after its installation in soils. Pile setup is linked to some