_Balkanisation_Trade_Integration_in_South-East_Europe_CEPS_Working_Document_No_249_11_August_2006 Kittova, Z., & Steinhauser, D. (2018). The international economic position of western Balkancountries in light of their European integration ambitions. Journal of Competitiveness , 10(3), 51–68. Klimczak, L. (2016). Trade liberalization and export performance of the western Balkans. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 12 (2), 57. https://doi.org/10.14254/1800-5845/2016.12-2.3 Kosovar Institute for Policy Research and Development. (2013). Kosovo in a regional context - economic and trade relations. Policy Analysis No. 3/13. Retrieved from
Do Balkan Countries Have a European Future? An Analysis of Real Economic Convergence, 1989-2005
The purpose of this paper is to assess the economic performance of Balkan countries compared to the European Union over the period 1989-2005. We use three economic indicators of income, productivity and employment. The analysis rests on the test of the real convergence process of these indicators. The results show evidence of real convergence (i.e., convergence hypothesis and reduction of inequalities) of labour productivity in Balkans, but they are mixed for income per capita and employment rate. The development gap between the Balkans and the European Union, which has widened considerably in the 1991-1993 period, shows a sign of recovery after this date. However, the gap remains very deep and the process of catching up with the European Union is too slow.
The aim of this paper is to analyse the effect of the mobile phone penetration rate on inequality in Western Balkan countries and to provide empirical evidence. We explore the question of whether cell phone diffusion helps to decrease inequality and whether it has a positive income equality effect. In the developed conceptual framework, we consider that people with access to mobile telephony also have access to Wi-Fi and GPS and that individuals can perform different activities, such as engaging in e-commerce, e-governance, health, and education; paying bills; saving money; and transferring money to other persons. This represents a good foundation for poor persons exit the cycle of deprivation and leads to the development of equal opportunities. We analyse the impact of mobile phone penetration on inequality in Western Balkan countries by using ordinary least squares and two-stage least squares models (Asongu, 2015). Our results confirm the income-redistributive effect of mobile phone penetration.
The goal of this paper is to examine the stability of money demand (M1) in five Western Balkan countries using quarterly data from 2005Q1 to 2014Q4. The dynamic ordinary least squares – DOLS method was used to find the long-run relationships in a money demand model. The empirical results identify the long-run money demand relationship among real M1 nominal interest rate, exchange rate, inflation and a dummy variable for the effect of the European debt crisis. The estimated long-run coefficients are, respectively −0.086, 0.519, 0.002 and 0.030. Our findings imply that real money demand in Western Balkan countries was stable in the analyzed period.
The expansion of the Internet has radically changed the way in which citizens travel, book and organise travel arrangements. Since innovation and new information technologies have become crucial determinants to encourage competitiveness in the tourism sector in Europe, this article investigates how selected development indicators influence the Percentage of individuals that use Internet for travel and accommodation services. Eurostat data for 34 European, European Union (EU-28) and selected EU candidates, countries for 2017 were analysed. It has been presented that (1) Gross Domestic Product per capita in Purchasing Power Standards; (2) Percentage of population aged 15 to 64, by tertiary education; as well as (3) Percentage of individuals aged 16 to 74, who have basic or above basic overall digital skills, all correlate positively and strongly with the main variable under study. The conducted regression analysis has shown that variable digital skills has the greatest impact on the main variable under the study. The K-mean clustering of countries resulted with four clusters. The Western Balkan countries can be found in a cluster which has in average the lowest values of all four variables in compare to the averages of other three clusters.
). Labour productivity and economic growth in selected SEE countries after the great recession of 2008. Proceedings of the 4th International Scientific Conference on Contemporary Issues in Economics, Business and Management (EBM 2016), Faculty of Economics in Kragujevac, Republic of Serbia. 17. National institutes of statistics in the Western Balkanscountries, 2005-2014. Retreived from: http://www.bhas.ba/?lang=en (The Agency for statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina); http://www.stat.gov.rs/ (Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia); http
Stylised facts of GDP growth patterns of developing (or transition) countries reveal huge difference to the GDP pattern observed in developed countries. Namely, they are characterised by a specific characteristic - instability, much higher and different from the ones observed in developed countries. This paper brings forward the assessment of the instability of growth, which is observed and tested in the case of several Balkan economies. In the course of transition, they experienced sudden turns from positive to negative average growth rates (or vice versa) caused by many structural, economic, political and social changes. Hence, the main purpose of the paper is to review the very recent literature on instability in growth and to empirically analyse it in the case of Balkan group of transition economies, performed by use of the simple linear regression analysis on the GDP growth data series. Main goal is to determine whether GDP growth patterns in the course of transition were characterised by instability and breaks. The results suggest that the growth process in Balkan economies cannot be described simply by a single rising trend, since the simple linear regression analysis shows very poor statistical fit. In general, the assessment guides towards an in-depth study of the instability of growth in the course of transition with a novel growth concept that will allow for shifts or breaks in trend, accompanied by a non-linear modelling approach that will allow the parameters to adjust to reflect structural changes in the course of transition.
Management experts have argued repeatedly that firms or companies should respond to environmental changes, by engaging in more systematic planning to anticipate and respond to changing and unforeseen events. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the situation of implementation of strategic management thought in two Balkan Countries in order to give valuable recommendations for improvement of these processes. Through an empirical study of both countries are given answers to the following questions: How do private businesses formulate, implement and evaluate strategies in Albania and Macedonia context? How and to what extent do contextual factors influence the action and performance of businesses? The empirical research upon which this paper is based has highlighted a number of valuable results in terms of new descriptive evidence of the levels of tool support and the top tools which are used by strategic management practitioners in Albania and Macedonia for a series of core strategic tasks.
This paper focuses on the relationship between exporting and the labour markets of the Western Balkan economies within a macroeconomic and microeconomic framework. Within the macroeconomic framework we investigate the Western Balkan countries’ evolution of the bilateral intra-industry trade share with European Monetary Union members and compare this with the differences in bilateral unit labour cost dynamics. The microeconomic analysis rests on enterprise-level cross section data collected during the crisis period and investigates whether exporters help to create additional jobs in the region in comparison to entrepreneurs oriented towards national market. The results show that trade patterns between Western Balkan economies and EMU trading partners did not exhibit any significant changes in trend. On the other hand, it seems that during the recession period most Western Balkan economies adjusted their unit labour costs, probably in order to boost competitiveness. Microeconomic analysis revealed that, although there are some positive differences between exporters and non-exporters, exporters do not create additional employment.
State aid aimed to certain market participants, especially some of its categories, carries a risk of distortion of competition. Therefore, it is necessary to control allocation of state aid and its direction from the sectoral objectives towards more justified horizontal objectives of allocating. This paper examines the practice of assigning sectoral state aid in the European Union and in the selected Western Balkan countries by using the methods of comparative and correlation analysis. The aim is to identify deviations and point out to the preferred ways of state aid allocation.