S. Gopinath, A. Ramachandra Murthy, D. Ramya and Nagesh R. Iyer
This paper presents the details of optimized mix design for normal strength and high performance concrete using particle packing method. A critical review of mix design methods have been carried out for normal strength concrete using American Concrete Institute (ACI) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) methods highlighting the similarities and differences towards attaining a particular design compressive strength. Mix design for M30 and M40 grades of concrete have been carried out using ACI, BIS and particle packing methods. Optimization of concrete mix has been carried out by means of particle packing method using EMMA software, which employs modified Anderson curve to adjust the main proportions. Compressive strength is evaluated for the adjusted proportions and it is observed that the mixes designed by particle packing method estimates compressive strength closer to design compressive strength. Further, particle packing method has been employed to optimize the ingredients of high performance concrete and experiments have been carried out to check the design adequacy of the desired concrete compressive strength.
Abdul Hamid Ismail, Georg Schlieper, Marian Walter, Jürgen Floege and Steffen Leonhardt
and current electrodes to ensure reproducibility of the measurement. Impedance data for kkBIS and whBIS were recorded sequentially with an interval of less than one minute between the two measurements.
Position of the electrodes for (a) the whole-body BIS (whBIS) and (b) knee-to-knee BIS (kkBIS) measurements. Four electrodes were used for each of the BISmethods, i.e. two for current injection I(t) and two for voltage sensing V(t).
Extracellular resistance (R e ) for each BISmethod were extracted by fitting the measured impedance data to the Cole
Leo Koziol, John J. Pitre Jr., Joseph L. Bull, Robert E. Dodde, Grant Kruger, Alan Vollmer and William F. Weitzel
improvements in assessment and management of fluid status essential [ 12 , 13 ]. We therefore are investigating a quantitative approach to assess edema using a modification of conventional segmental BISmethods [ 14 , 15 , 16 ].
BIS measurements have been used in various ways to improve the assessment of dry weight in dialysis [ 10 , 17 , 18 ]. Fig. 1 shows graphically the principle behind how the flattening of BIS over time can be used to estimate the arrival at a near-dry weight status in dialysis patients. Dry-weight in dialysis has been conventionally defined as
bone loss occurs with aging [ 31 ]. In this study, age and age at menopause were not correlated with BMD and characteristic frequency. The lack of correlation may result from limited number of subjects.
The characteristic frequencies obtained with the BISmethod are influenced by parameters such as fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW). BIS studies should be carried out with more subjects by including more parameters.
A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the
Leslie D. Montgomery, Richard W. Montgomery, Wayne A. Gerth, Marty Loughry, Susie Q. Lew and Manuel T. Velasquez
intercompartmental fluid shifts in the limb during HD reflect total body fluid shifts.
3) Validation with the Critline.
This study demonstrates for the first time that the BISmethod can reliably provide real-time continuous measurements of compartmental intravascular, interstitial, and intracellular fluid volume and cardiovascular changes that occur during HD treatment. Such information may prove valuable in the diagnosis and management of rapid changes in body fluid balance. Furthermore, BIS measurements can be used to predict who will have a symptomatic hemodialysis