/FDA, Waiver of In Vivo Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Studies for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms Based on a Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Guidance for industry. 2017; https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/Guidances/ucm070246.pdf ; access date March 19, 2018. 10. B. M. Davit, I. Kanfer, Y. C. Tsang and J. M. Cardot, BCS biowaivers: similarities and differences among EMA, FDA, and WHO requirements, AAPS J . 18 (2016) 612–618; https://doi.org/10.1208/s12248-016-9877-2 11. Bayer Inc., Product monograph Aerius ® Desloratadine Tablet 5 mg Aerius Kids
The body condition scoring system (BCS) is a means of accurately determining body condition of dairy cows, independent of body weight and farm size. The body condition scores represent a subjective visual or tactile (or both) evaluation of the amount of subcutaneous fat in a cow. The system is a useful method of evaluating body energy reserves and is used widely for evaluating nutritional status in dairy cows. The different stages of lactation have different recommended scores. BCS change during the lactation period depends on the milk production, reproduction and health status. Extreme body condition loss in the early lactation can cause irregular heats, longer time to first ovulation, and fail to conceive. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of BCS on Holstein cows’ reproduction. The relationship between some BCS parameters: BCS at calving (BCSc), minimum BCS after calving (BCSmin) and the reduction of BCS after calving (BCSr) on one hand and three reproductive parameters: the days from calving to first service (DFS), number of inseminations to conception (NIC), and days open (DO) on the other hand were studied in three private dairy farms in South Hungary. BCS were determined monthly during milk recording. A total of 786 records of Holstein cows from 1 to 3 lactation were evaluated. DFS was significantly (P<5%) influenced by BCSs and BCSmin. The number of inseminations to conception (NIC) varied according to the individual cow. In the present study was between 1 and 12. The most favourable DO values were observed in the group having >3.5 BCSc (150.04 days), the group with 3.0-3.5 BCSmin (138.92) and the group having >1 BCSr. There was no significant relationship found between DO and the BCS groups.
Active ingredients in pharmaceuticals differ by their physico-chemical properties and their bioavailability therefore varies. The most frequently used and most convenient way of administration of medicines is oral, however many drugs are little soluble in water. Thus they are not sufficiently effective and suitable for such administration. For this reason a system of lipid based formulations (LBF) was developed. Series of formulations were prepared and tested in water and biorelevant media. On the basis of selection criteria, there were selected formulations with the best emulsification potential, good dispersion in the environment and physical stability. Samples of structurally different drugs included in the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) were obtained, namely Griseofulvin, Glibenclamide, Carbamazepine, Haloperidol, Itraconazol, Triclosan, Praziquantel and Rifaximin, for testing of maximal saturation in formulations prepared from commercially available excipients. Methods were developed for preparation of formulations, observation of emulsification and its description, determination of maximum solubility of drug samples in the respective formulation and subsequent analysis. Saturation of formulations with drugs showed that formulations 80 % XA and 20 % Xh, 35 % XF and 65 % Xh were best able to dissolve the drugs which supports the hypothesis that it is desirable to identify limited series of formulations which could be generally applied for this purpose.
processes during the transition period to produce good quality colostrum and subsequently milk ( 31 ). Most cows suffer from clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia during the first days of lactation, and total plasma calcium levels reach their physiological level 2 to 3 days after parturition ( 17 , 32 ). Clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia negatively affects energy metabolism and the immune status of cows and a variable degree of Ca insufficiency impairs leukocyte activity ( 24 ). The body condition score (BCS) is a useful and simple method to assess an animal’s energy
2011; 49(5):471-476. 7. Ding S, Dudley E, Plummer S, Tang J, Newton RP, Brenton AG. Fingerprint profile of Gingko bilobae nutritional supplements by LC/ESI-MS/MS. Phytochemistry 2008; 69(7):1555-1564. 8. Tang Y. Coumaroyl flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Gingko bilobae. Phytochemistry 2001; 58(8):1251-1256. 9. Kołodziejczyk MK, Zgoda MM. Suche mianowane ekstrakty roślinne. Nośniki środków leczniczych w świetle BCS. Przemysł Farmaceutyczny 2012; 5:58-62. 10. Suter A, Niemer W, Klopp R. A new Gingko fresh plant extract increases microcirculation and radical
Introduction Budd-Chiari Syndrome (BCS) is a rare and severe thrombotic disease affecting hepatic veins (HVs) and/or inferior vena cava (IVC) and impairing hepatic outflow. Although many of the cases are idiopathic, one or more prothrombotic conditions are usually discovered, the most frequent of which are myeloproliferative diseases[ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. However, as it has been recently emphasized, the role of prothrombotic conditions seem to be relevant in the West, where BCS mostly involve HVs, while less in Asia, particularly in China, where the involvement of
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women, with global trends indicating rising rates of incidence and mortality [ 1 ]. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is the removal of cancerous tissue followed by radiation treatment, allowing the maintenance of healthy breast tissue in breast cancer patients. BCS is becoming a preferred treatment approach for early-stage breast cancer, yet has not replaced mastectomy. Although numerous randomized controlled trials have demonstrated long-term survival rates for patients with early-stage breast cancer
Background Budd–Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare and life-threatening vascular disorder, consisting of hepatic venous outflow obstruction at any level between the small hepatic veins and the right atrium. [ 1 , 2 ] BCS is classified into two categories. BCS is regarded as secondary BCS when the hepatic flow is obstructed by compression or invasion of a lesion outside the hepatic venous outflow track (benign or malignant tumors, cysts, abscess, and so on). [ 3 ] BCS is regarded as primary BCS if the flow is obstructed because of the primary venous anomaly
Creating robust, reproducible and optimal computational models is a key challenge for theorists in many sciences. Psychology and cognitive science face particular challenges as large amounts of data are collected and many models are not amenable to analytical techniques for calculating parameter sets. Particular problems are to locate the full range of acceptable model parameters for a given dataset, and to confirm the consistency of model parameters across different datasets. Resolving these problems will provide a better understanding of the behaviour of computational models, and so support the development of general and robust models. In this article, we address these problems using evolutionary algorithms to develop parameters for computational models against multiple sets of experimental data; in particular, we propose the ‘speciated non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm’ for evolving models in several theories. We discuss the problem of developing a model of categorisation using twenty-nine sets of data and models drawn from four different theories. We find that the evolutionary algorithms generate high quality models, adapted to provide a good fit to all available data.
Background Budd–Chiari syndrome Budd–Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a vascular disorder of the liver, characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction from the major hepatic vein to the confluence between suprahepatic portion of inferior vena cava and right atrium.[ 1 , 2 , 3 ] According to the epidemiological data from Denmark[ 4 ], France[ 5 ], Korea[ 6 ], northwestern Italy[ 7 ], and Sweden[ 8 ], the annual incidence of BCS ranges from 0.13 to 3.5 per million in the mentioned countries. Epidemiological data from Japan[ 9 ] and Sweden[ 8 ] reveal that the