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Introduction In the sociology of journalism, news is seen as the product of an institution (e.g. Cook 1998 ). Journalists, on the other hand, tend to explain news as the product of professional judgement ( Gitlin 1980 : 249). In one version, news is the outcome of structure, in the other, the result of agency. This discrepancy invites interrogations into the nature of autonomy as a professional trait. This article analyses the boundaries, limits and expressions of journalistic autonomy within a contemporary media context, arguing that autonomy exists within a

of the Autonomy Scale: Properties of the Autonomy – Connectedness Scale (ACS-30). Journal of personality assessment, 86 (1), 51-60. 5. Biggs, M. J. G. (2006). Comparison of student perceptions of classroom instruction: Traditional, hybrid, and distance education. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education – TOJDE, 7 (2), 46-51. 6. Brockett, R. G., & Hiemstra, R. (1991). Self-Direction in Adult Learning: Perspectives on Theory, Research and Practice. London and New York: Routledge. 7. Candy, P. C. (1991). Self-Direction for Lifelong Learning: A Comprehensive

References 1. Bekker, M.H.J. (1993). The development of an Autonomy scale based on recent insights into gender identity. In European Journal of Personality, 7, (pp. 177-194). 2. Bekker, M.H.J.; Bachrach, N.; Croon, M.A. (2007). The relationships of antisocial behavior with attachment, autonomy-connectedness, and alexithymia. In Journal of Critical Psychology, 63(6), (pp. 507-527). 3. Bekker, M.H.J. and Belt, U. (2006). The role of autonomy-connectedness in anxiety and depression. In Depression and Anxiety, 23, (pp. 274-280). 4. Bekker, M.H.J.; Hens, G

Abstract

Degree of autonomy is one of the key dimensions of professionalization in journalism. However, the strive for autonomy looks different in different media systems, where pressure on autonomy can come from both political and commercial powers, outside and within the media. Media development also changes the conditions for professional autonomy for journalists, in both a positive and a negative sense. In the comparative research project “Journalism in change”, the journalistic cultures in Russia, Poland and Sweden are studied. In a survey involving 1500 journalists from the three countries, journalists report on their perceived autonomy in their daily work and in relation to different actors inside and outside the media. The survey covers how the work has been changed by media developments, and how these changes have affected journalists′perceived autonomy. The results show similarities in the strive for autonomy, but also clear differences in how autonomy is perceived by journalists in the three countries.

References Caldwell, B. J. and J. M. Spinks. 1992. Leading the Self-Managing School . London: Falmer. Davies, B. and G. C. Hentschke. 1994. “School Autonomy: Myth or Reality - Developing an Analytical Taxonomy.” Educational Management & Administration 22(2), 96 - 103. Guthrie, J. W. and L. C. Pierce. 1990. “Th e International Economy and National Education Reform: A Comparison of Education Reforms in the United States and Great Britain.” Oxford Review of Education 16(2), 179 - 203. Hannaway, J. and J. Talbert. 1993. “Bringing Context into Eff ective Schools

. Garlan, D. & J. Ockerbloom 1995. Architectural Mismatch or Why it's Hard to Build Systems out of Existing Parts. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Software Engineering, Seattle WA, April Hall, J. S. 2008. VARIAC: An Autogenous Cognitive Architecture. In Proceedings of First Conference of Artificial General Intelligence , 176-187. Memphis, Tenn.: ISO Press. Huang, H., Messina, E., Albus, J. 2003. Towards a Generic Model for Autonomy Levels for Unmanned Systems (ALFUS). In Proceedings of the 2003 PerMIS Workshop , Gaithersburg, MD: National

training is organised; Fourth, there are many university teachers who are not ready to face the modern challenges of higher medical education, completely rethink traditional study goals and strategies of teaching in order to provide optimal challenges for students, ensure a diversity of learning experiences, built in accordance with the possibilities and the needs of all student categories, making students feel competent, supporting their autonomy [ 1 , 2 ] and internationalising the content of higher education [ 3 ]. Fifth, despite proclaimed transformation of the

Student Outcomes . Nottingham: NCSL. Cheng, Y. C. and T. Tai Hoi Lee. 2016. “School Autonomy, Leadership and Learning: A Reconceptualization.” International Journal of Educational Management 30(2), 177 – 196. Creswell, J. W. 2007. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches . Thousand Oaks (Calif.), London, New Delhi: SAGE Publications. Creswell, J. W. 2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches . Thousand Oaks (Calif.), London: SAGE Publications. Daun, H. 2010. “The New Mode of Governance in European

References Anderson, S. & Eswaran, M. (2009). “What determines female autonomy? Evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of Development Economics, 90, 179-191. Bloom SS, Wypij D, Das Gupta M. (2001). “Dimensions of women’s autonomy and the influence on maternal health care utilization in a north Indian city”. Demography. 38(1):67-78. BOFED (2011). Annual Report Submitted to Regional Council Hawassa, Ethiopia. BOFED (2006). Bureau of Finance and Economic Development Division of Statistics and Population in SNNPR. Regional Statistical Abstract. Hawassa. Ethiopia. Caldwell

PB 44 Open Access David N. Myers Abstract This article explores the past and present of the concepts of “sovereignty” and “autonomy” in Jewish nationalism. It revisits the play of—and interplay between—the two terms in the current moment of globalizations, when old truths about state sovereignty are being questioned. In particular, it highlights a number of new trends in the historiography of Jewish nationalism that lend prominence to autonomist or diasporist currents; at the same time, it suggests the potential utility of such currents in helping to