In this paper, we are trying to summarize the peak of achievement of the Arabian logicians of the fifteenth century by making a classification and sketching in familiar terms the conditional and subjunctive syllogisms in Muḥammad Ibn Yusūf al-SSinūsī’s (1426-1490) work, i.e. in his explanation of Kitāb al-Muḫtaşar fī al-Manṭiq of al-Imām Muḥammad Ibn ʿArafa (1316- 1401).
The form of the conditional syllogism resembles that of the categorical syllogism, while its subject matter is at least a conditional premise, but its conclusion is always conditional conjunctive or disjunctive. This mixed structure to which we apply the rules of the categorical syllogism, is a structure of which Aristotle did not have an idea, and which the Stoics did not conceive, and which the non-Arabian logicians did not know until in modern times. But what we have to notice here is the putting of a conditional matter in the form of the categorical syllogism, and it is this kind of hybridization, if we dare to say, which generated this mixed structure which appeared for the first time in the history of logic in the treatise on the logic of Ibn Sina and which can be considered a discovery by this author until proof to the contrary, and that the ancient Arabian logicians have taken the habit of exhibiting in their treatises.
the logic of Arabic and Islamic philosophy and sciences, it is well known that it
is a result of the Greek through Syriacs and Hebrews (some argue against the latter). However, both
Yagoubi and Fatahine try to prove, in their two papers in this volume, i.e. The Status of Conditional
Syllogism in Syllogistics, and Theory of Syllogisms with Categorical, Conditional and Disjunctive
Connectives Developed by ArabianLogicians, that Arabs and Muslims added new syllogism(s) to
the Greek logical traditions. The second sketches the figures and forms of this new