. Antibioticresistance in Haemophilus infl uenzae decreased, except for β-lactamase-negative amoxicillin- resistant isolates, in parallel with community antibiotic consumption in Spain from 1997 to 2007. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008;52:2760-6.
10. Tristram SG, Nichols S. A multiplex PCR for β-lactamase genes of Haemophilus infl uenzae and description of a new bla TEM promoter variant. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;58:183-5.
11. San Millan A, Giufré M, Escudero JA, et al. Contribution of ROB-1 and PBP3 mutations to the resistance
1. Wexler HM. Bacteroides: the good, the bad and the nittygritty. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20(4):593-621.
2. Könönen E, Wade WG, Citron DM. Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and other anaerobic Gram-negative rods. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition: American Society of Microbiology; 2011.
3. Nagy E. Anaerobic infections: Update on treatment considerations. Drugs. 2010;70(7):841-58.
4. Sóki J. Extended role for insertion sequence elements in the antibioticresistance of Bacteroides. World Journal of
through the food chain resulting in a serious risk to human health. Drug resistance has consequently become a focus of interest for both the poultry industry and public healthcare in China.
Data on profiles of virulence factors and antibioticresistances among APEC strains are crucial to infection control in China. In this study, we isolated strains from eastern China and determined the prevalence of virulence factors, distribution of antibioticresistance, and phylogenetic background of these isolates.
Material and Methods
Bacterial strains. Samples of the
Alise Jakovele, Vizma Nikolajeva, Jūlija Trofimova and Natalja Ivanova
., Torcolini, J., Zhao, C., McDermott, P. W., Wagner, D. D., Walker, R. D., White, D. G. (2002). Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, O128, and O145 from animals and humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis ., 8 (12), 1409–1414.
Stenutz, R., Weintraub, A., Widmalm, G. (2005). The structures of Escherichia coli O polysaccharide antigens. FEMS (Federation of European Microbiological Societies) Microbiol. Rev., 30 (3), 376–380.
Threlfall, E. J., Ward, L. R., Frost, J. A., Willshaw, G. A. (2000). The emergence and spread of antibioticresistance
Reservoirs of drug resistant bacterial genomes and extrachromosomal DNA segments are a growing problem and cause emergence of new multidrug resistant (MDR) strains [ 1 ]. Antibioticresistance of Klebsiella infections are causing increasing morbidity and mortality, and an increase in health care costs worldwide.
In epidemiological research, not only phenotypical analysis, but also genotypical analysis is conducted by using various molecular typing methods such as plasmid profiling, ribotyping, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to find genetic
Mladen Rašeta, Vlado Teodorović, Olivera Bunčić, Vera Katić, Ivana Branković Lazić, Vladimir Polaček and Dejan Vidanović
, Gardner MJ, Ahmed R, Gessner BD: Outbreak of multidrugresistant Salmonella Typhimurium associated with ground beef served at a school potluck. Journal of Food Protection 2006, 69:666-670
7. Busani L, Graziani C, Battisti A, Franco A, Ricci A, Vio D: Antibioticresistance in Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Infantis from human infections, foodstuffs and farm animals in Italy. Epidemiology and Infection 2004, 132:245-251
8. Tollefson L, Miller MA: Antibiotic use of food animals: controlling the human health impact
 O. Adenaike, O. S. Olonitola, J. B. Ameh, C. M. Z. Whong, Multidrug resistance pattern and Multiple AntibioticResistance index of strains of Escherichia coli isolated from retailed smoked fish. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology , 30. 1. (2016) 3168–3171.
 M. A. Al-Ashmawy, K. I. Sallam, S. M. Abd-Elghany, M. Elhadidy, T. Tamura, Prevalence, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease , 13. (2016
: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology , edited by B. J. Brenner, N. R. Krieg, J. T. Staley, Springer, New York, 2005, pp. 491-494.
12. Laganà P., Caruso G., Minotoli E., Zaccone R., Delia S.: Susuceptibility to antibiotics of Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium damsela spp. piscicida strains isolated from Italian aquaculture farms. New Microbiologica 2011, 34 , 53-63.
13. Li J., Yie J., Foo R.W.T., Ling J.M.L., Xu H., Woo N.Y.S.: Antibioticresistance and plasmid profiles of Vibrio isolates from cultured silver sea bream
Ali K. Alzahrani, Mostafa M. Farag, Said H. Abbadi, Mohamed M. Hassan, Ahmed Gaber and Ahmed S. Abdel-Moneim
Gram-negative bacteria are potential causes of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Multiple antibioticresistance to broad-spectrum β-lactams are considered one of the most important traits. Antibioticresistance of Enterobacteriaceae is mainly accompanied by the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) that hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam, but can be inhibited by clavulanic acid [ 1 - 3 ].
ESBLs are primarily produced by gram-negative organisms of the Enterobacteriaceae family, especially Escherichia coli