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–1454. [10] H. C orrigan -G ibbs , D. B oneh , and D. M azières , Riposte: An anonymous messaging system handling millions of users , in Proc. 36th IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (S&P 2015), 2015, pp. 321–338. [11] G. D anezis , C. D iaz , C. T roncoso , and B. L aurie , Drac: An architecture for anonymous low-volume communications , in Proc. 10th Privacy Enhancing Technologies Symposium (PETS 2010), 2010. [12] D. D as , S. M eiser , E. M ohammadi , and A. K ate , Anonymity trilemma: Strong anonymity, low bandwidth overhead, low latency - choose two , in

. Polychronakis, and A. D. Keromytis. On the effectiveness of traffic analysis against anonymity networks using flow records. In PAM, 2014. [18] D. Chaum. The dining cryptographers problem: Unconditional sender and recipient untraceability. Journal of cryptology, 1(1):65-75, 1988. [19] D. Chaum, F. Javani, A. Kate, A. Krasnova, J. de Ruiter, and A. T. Sherman. cMix: Anonymization by highperformance scalable mixing. Technical report, 2016. [20] D. L. Chaum. Untraceable electronic mail, return addresses, and digital pseudonyms. Commun. ACM, 24

pinfrastructure hybrids. In NSDI, 2012. [30] M. Akhoondi, C. Yu, and H. V. Madhyastha. Lastor: A lowlatency as-aware tor client. In IEEE S&P, 2012. [31] R. Annessi and M. Schmiedecker. Navigator: Finding faster paths to anonymity. In IEEE Euro S&P, 2016. [32] K. Bauer, D. McCoy, D. Grunwald, and D. Sicker. Bitblender: Light-weight anonymity for bittorrent. In AIPACa, 2008. [33] P. Boucher, A. Shostack, and I. Goldberg. Freedom systems 2.0 architecture. Zero Knowledge Systems, Inc, 2000. [34] J. Boyan. The anonymizer: Protecting user privacy on the web. Computer


We introduce a new cryptographic protocol based on the wellknown LearningWith Errors (LWE) problem: a group key transfer protocol which achieves anonymity of the members against each others. This issue is almost absent in the key transfer protocols from the literature but we argue it is a practical property. We motivate our construction by a practical need. We use two essential cryptographic primitives built from LWE: LWE Diffie-Hellman key exchange derived from Regev’s work [Regev, O.: On lattices, learning with errors, random linear codes, and cryptography, in: Proc. of the 37th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing-STOC ’05 (H. N. Gabow and R. Fagin, eds.), Baltimore, MD, USA, 2005, ACM, New York, 2005, pp. 84-93] and a public key cryptosystem secure under the LWE hardness. We provide a security definition for anonymous key transfer protocol and we achieve anonymity against IND-CPA adversaries.

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, pages 1–5. IEEE, 2008. [10] D. Chaum. The dining cryptographers problem: Unconditional sender and recipient untraceability. Journal of cryptology , 1(1): 65–75, 1988. [11] C. Chen, D. E. Asoni, D. Barrera, G. Danezis, and A. Perrig. Hornet: high-speed onion routing at the network layer. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security , pages 1441–1454. ACM, 2015. [12] C. Chen, D. E. Asoni, A. Perrig, D. Barrera, G. Danezis, and C. Troncoso. Taranet: Traffic-analysis resistant anonymity at the network layer. In 2018 IEEE

Computer and Communications Security (CCS), 2010. [8] H. Corrigan-Gibbs, D. I. Wolinsky, and B. Ford. Proactively Accountable Anonymous Messaging in Verdict. In USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX), 2013. [9] S. E. Deering and D. R. Cheriton. Multicast Routing in Datagram Internetworks and Extended LANs. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS), 8(2):85-110, 1990. [10] C. Díaz, S. Seys, J. Claessens, and B. Preneel. Towards Measuring Anonymity. In Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET), 2003. [11] R. Dingledine. Research Problem: Better Guard Rotation Parameters, August

References [1] Masoud Akhoondi, Curtis Yu, and Harsha V. Madhyastha. LASTor: A low-latency AS-aware Tor client. In IEEE S&P, 2012. [2] Alexa top 500 sites., 2017. [3] Michael Backes, Sebastian Meiser, and Marcin Slowik. Your Choice MATor(s): Large-scale quantitative anonymity assessment of Tor path selection algorithms against structural attacks. PoPETs, 2016(2), 2016. [4] Armon Barton and Matthew Wright. DeNASA: Destinationnaive AS-awareness in anonymous communications. PoPETs, 2016(4), 2016. [5] Oliver Berthold, Hannes Federrath

Kpsell, S. (2001). Web mixes: A system for anonymous and unobservable internet access, International Workshop on Designing Privacy Enhancing Technologies: Design Issues in Anonymity and Unobservability, Berkeley, CA, USA, pp. 115-129. Boyd, C., Mao, W. and Paterson, K.G. (2005). Deniable authenticated key establishment for internet protocols, in B. Christianson et al. (Eds.), Security Protocols, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp. 255-271. Dabek, F., Li, J., Sit, E., Robertson, J., Kaashoek, M. and Morris, R. (2004). Designing a DHT for low latency and high throughput

anonymity protocol at network layer,” Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies , vol. 2017, no. 1, pp. 100–117, 2017. [10] D. Das, S. Meiser, E. Mohammadi, and A. Kate, “Anonymity trilemma: Strong anonymity, low bandwidth overhead, low latency - choose two,” in 2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP) , vol. 00, May 2018, pp. 108–126. [11] P. Dhungel, M. Steiner, I. Rimac, V. Hilt, and K. W. Ross, “Waiting for anonymity: Understanding delays in the tor overlay,” in 2010 IEEE Tenth International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P) . IEEE, 2010, pp. 1