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Opisthorchiasis in the Ukrainian SSR (cadastre). Kiev, 1-44 [In Russian]. Shimalov, V. V, Shimalov, V. T. 1987. Helminth cenoses of the mink in Belorussia. Tezisy dokladov konferencii. Minsk, 112-115. Shimalov, V. V, Shimalov, V. T. 2001. Alaria alata (Trematoda: Alariidae) - a parasite of canids in Belarusian Polesye. Parazitologiya, 35 (1), 77-79 [In Russian]. Sołtys, A. 1964. Helmintofauna wilków (Canis lupus). Wiadomości Parazytologiczne, 10, 59-62. Thiess, A.‚ Schuster, R. ‚ Nöckler, K.‚ Mix, H. 2001. Helminths findings in indigenous raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides

. (1978): Occurrence of Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788) and Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782) in wild carnivora in Hungary. Parasitol. Hung. , 11: 142 – 142 T orres , J., F eliu , C., M iquel , J., C asanova , J.C., G arcía -P erea , R., G isbert , J. (1996): Helmintofauna de Mustela putorius Linnaeus, 1758 (Carnivora: Mustelidae) en la península Ibérica [Helminths fauna of Mustela putorius Linnaaeus, 1758 (Carnivora: Mustelidae) in the Iberian Peninsula]. BoII. Soco Hist. Nat. Balears ., 39: 155 – 165 (In Spanish) T orres , J., F eliu , C., F ernández -M orán , J

Abstract

This is the first review of life cycles of trematodes with parthenitae and larvae in freshwater gastropods from forest biocoenoses of Ukrainian Polissia. Altogether 26 trematode species from 14 families were found circulating in 13 ways in molluscs from reservoirs connected with forest ecosystems of the region. Three-host life cycle is typical of 18 trematode species, two-host life cycle has found in 7 species, and four-host cycles has found in one species. Alaria alata Goeze, 1782, has three-host (Shults, 1972) and four-host cycles. Opisthioglyphe ranae (Froehlich, 1791) can change three-host life cycle to two-host cycle replacing the second intermediate host () with the definitive host. Species with primary two-host life cycle belong to Notocotylidae Lühe, 1909, Paramphistomidae Fischoeder, 1901 and Fasciolidae Railliet, 1758 families. Trematodes with three-host cycle have variable second intermediate hosts, including invertebrates and aquatic or amphibious vertebrates. Definitive hosts of trematodes are always vertebrates from different taxonomic groups. The greatest diversity of life cycles is typical for trematodes of birds. Trematodes in the forest biocoenoses of Ukrainian Polissia infect birds in six ways, mammals in three, amphibians in four, and reptiles in one way. The following species have epizootic significance: Liorchis scotiae (Willmott, 1950); Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha Ejsmont, 1932; Notocotylus seineti Fuhrmann, 1919; Catatropis verrucosa (Frölich, 1789) Odhner, 1905; Cotylurus cornutus (Rudolphi, 1808); Echinostoma revolutum (Fröhlich, 1802) Dietz, 1909; Echinoparyphium aconiatum Dietz, 1909; Echinoparyphium recurvatum (Linstow, 1873); Hypoderaeum conoideum (Bloch, 1782) Dietz, 1909; Paracoenogonimus ovatus Kasturada, 1914; Alaria alata Goeze, 1782.

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland), with particular regard to zoonotic parasites.

Material and Methods: Intestines from 53 raccoon dogs and 66 red foxes were examined with the use of sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). Samples of faeces from 51 red foxes and 50 raccoon dogs were examined with the use of flotation method.

Results: Parasitic helminths were found by SCT in 98.5% of red foxes and 96.2% of raccoon dogs. Both species were infected with: Alaria alata (93.9% and 94.3%, respectively), hookworms (68.2% and 83.0%), Apophallus spp. (7.6% and 15.1%), Mesocestoides spp. (57.6% and 24.5%), Taenia spp. (40.9% and 1.9%), and Toxocara/Toxascaris nematodes (33.3% 15.1%). Echinococcus multilocularis was detected only in red foxes (6.1%), but trematodes Echinostomatidae and nematodes Molineus spp. only in raccoon dogs (18.9% and 41.5%, respectively). Additionally, Capillaria spp. eggs were detected by flotation method in 78.4% of foxes and 20.0% of raccoon dogs.

Conclusion: The study showed a very high percentage of red foxes and raccoon dogs infected with intestinal helminths in the Augustów Primeval Forest. Moreover, dangerous zoonotic parasites also were found, which should be taken into consideration in the assessment of infection risk for humans in this region.

and percentages. The statistical significance cut-off was set at p< 0.05. Ethical Approval and/or Informed Consent Not applicable. Results In the examined soil and sand samples, seven endoparasites were identified: protozoa from the Cystoisospora genus ( Fig. 1A) , nematodes ( Toxocara canis – Fig. 1B , Toxascaris leonina – Fig. 1C , Trichuris vulpis – Fig. 1D , ancylostomatidae – Fig. 1E) and a trematode Alaria alata ( Fig. 1F) . Figure 1 Parasitology diagnosis of soil samples. A) sporulated oocysts of Cystoisospora spp.; B) embryonated egg of T

.G., PROTASOVA, E.N., RESHETNIKOV, A.N., SHED’KO, M.B. (2012): Parasites of introduced rotan Perccottus glenii (Actinopterygii: Odontobutidae) from water bodies of European Russia. Uspekhi Sovremennoy Biologii. 132: 477 - 492 (In Russian) SOLTYS, A. (1962): Helminth parasites of Mustelidae of the Lublin Palatinate. Acta Parasitol. Pol., 10(1/11): 73 - 76. SUGÁR, L., MATSKÁSI, I. (1978): Occurrence of Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788) and Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782) in wild carnivora in Hungary. Parasit. Hung., 11: 142 TAMURA, K., STECHER, G., PETERSON, D., FILIPSKI, A., KUMAR

, C.H., COLLINS, F.H. (1991): Species-diagnostic differences in the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer from the sibling species Anopheles freeborni and Anopheles hermsi (Diptera: Culicidae). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 45: 271 - 279 PORTIER, C., JOUET, D., VALLÉE, I., FERTÉ, H. (2012): Detection of Planorbis planorbis and Anisus vortex as fi rst inter mediate hosts of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in natural conditions in France: molecular evidence. Vet. Parasitol., 190(1 - 2): 151 - 158. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.06.020. PRASAD, P.K., TANDON, V., BISWAL, D