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Given that the notion of telicity was simply defined by English linguists as a situation which tends towards a goal, this paper will additionally explain and define telicity in the English language. Moreover, the issue of telicity in the Serbian and Romanian relevant linguistic literature has been scarcely analysed. This paper aims to ascertain and define telicity as an indispensable semantic characteristic of Serbian and Romanian verbs. Since the paper proves that the concept of telicity can be detected in languages other than English, telicity can and should be considered a linguistic universal.


In this article, we explore the conditions under which prima facie adjectival adjuncts projected as depictive modifiers inside verbal phrases allow extraction. Building on the analysis of gerund clauses proposed in Fábregas and Jiménez-Fernández (in press), we argue that their empirical behaviour shows that, whenever these adjectival constituents license extraction, they are projections of PathP that form a verbal complex with the verb inside a single syntactic domain. This forces the conclusion that adjunct adjectives must be projected as PathPs, and in the last part of the paper we show that this proposal in fact explains two properties of these elements without further stipulations: they always receive a stage level interpretation, and cannot combine with pure stative verbs.


This study focuses on the progressive vs. non-progressive alternation to revisit the debate on the ENL-ESL-EFL continuum (i.e. whether native (ENL) and nonnative (ESL/EFL) Englishes are dichotomous types of English or form a gradient continuum). While progressive marking is traditionally studied independently of its unmarked counterpart, we examine (i) how the grammatical contexts of both constructions systematically affect speakers’ constructional choices in ENL (American, British), ESL (Indian, Nigerian and Singaporean) and EFL (Finnish, French and Polish learner Englishes) and (ii) what light speakers’ varying constructional choices bring to the continuum debate. Methodologically, we use a clustering technique to group together individual varieties of English (i.e. to identify similarities and differences between those varieties) based on linguistic contextual features such as AKTIONSART, ANIMACY, SEMANTIC DOMAIN (of aspect-bearing lexical verb), TENSE, MODALITY and VOICE to assess the validity of the ENL-ESL-EFL classification for our data. Then, we conduct a logistic regression analysis (based on lemmas observed in both progressive and non-progressive constructions) to explore how grammatical contexts influence speakers’ constructional choices differently across English types. While, overall, our cluster analysis supports the ENL-ESL-EFL classification as a useful theoretical framework to explore cross-variety variation, the regression shows that, when we start digging into the specific linguistic contexts of (non-)progressive constructions, this classification does not systematically transpire in the data in a uniform manner. Ultimately, by including more than one statistical technique into their exploration of the continuum, scholars could avoid potential methodological biases.

- et kontrastivt studium i aspekt og aktionsart. (phd-afhandling) Hentet fra (29.09.2016) DDO = Den Danske Ordbog. [29.08.2016] KorpusDK. [29.08.2016] SJP = Słownik jezyka polskiego PWN. [29.08.2016]

. In: Convivium. Germanistisches Jahrbuch Polen, Bonn: DAAD, 333-344. Reichenbach, H. (1947). Elements of Symbolic Logic. New York: The Free Press. Sobkowiak, M. (2009). Perfektivitet og imperfektivitet i dansk og polsk - et kontrastivt studium i aspekt og aktionsart. Ph.d.-Abhandlung (Mskr.). Poznan: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza. Sobkowiak, M. (2011). Endnu en aspektteori - om aspekt i dansk og danske aspektmarkører. In: I. Schoonderbeek Hansen, P. Widell (red.): 13 Møde om Udforskningen af Dansk Sprog. Århus 2010. Århus: Nordisk Institut, Aarhus Universitet

( Γραμματική της νέας ελληνικής: δομολειτοθργική – επι-κοινωνιακή ) [The grammar of Modern Greek: structural – communicative]. Athens: Ellinika Grammata. Llorach, Emilio Alarcos. 2000. Gramática de la lengua española. Madrid: Espasa. Mackridge, Peter. 1985. The Modern Greek language: a descriptive analysis of Standard Modern Greek . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Markopoulos, Theodore. 2009. The Future in Greek: From Ancient to Medieval . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Moser, Amalia. 1994. Verbal aspect and Aktionsart . Athens: National and Kapodistrian University

References Abels, K. and A. Neeleman. 2006. Universal 20 without the LCA. (Ms., University of Tomso and University College London.) Algryani, A. 2012. The syntax of ellipsis in Libyan Arabic: A generative analysis of sluicing, VP ellipsis, stripping and negative contrast. (PhD dissertation, Newcastle University.) Alshamari, M. and M. Jarrah. 2016. “A minimalist-based approach to phrasal verb movement in North Hail Arabic”. International Journal of English Linguistics 6. 24-37. Bache, C. 1982. “Aspect and Aktionsart: Towards a semantic distinction”. Journal of

stavelsesgrænser. NyS 39, 64-92 [dostep 21.07.2016] Schachtenhaufen, R. (2013). Fonetisk reduktion i dansk. Rozprawa doktorska. Copenhagen Business School. [dostep: 21.07.2016]. Sobkowiak, M. (2009). Perfektivitet og imperfektivitet i dansk og polsk - et kontrastivt studium i aspekt og aktionsart. Rozprawa doktorska. Poznan: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Wydział Neofilologii. [dostep

in Several Dialects of Arabic. In Kaye, Alan S. (ed.), Semitic Studies, 207-224. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Comrie, Bernard. 1976. Aspect: An Introduction to the Study of Verbal Aspect and Related Problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Croft, William. 2012. Verbs: Aspect and Causal Structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dahl, Östen. 1985. Tense and Aspect Systems. Oxford: Blackwell. Dahl, Östen. 2001. Languages without tense and aspect. In Ebert, Karen H. & Zúñiga, Fernando (eds.), Aktionsart and Aspectotemporality in Non-European Languages, 159

Prefixation of *’a- in Afroasiatic. In: Ägypten im afro-orientalischen Kontext: Aufsätze zur Archäologie, Geschichte und Sprache eines unbegrenzten Raumes. Gedenkschrift Peter Behrens (Afrika- nistische Arbeitspapiere, Sondernummer 1991). Köln: Universität zu Köln 1991, 271-277. (c) Aspect and Aktionsart. A Reconciliation. In: Perspectives on Aspect and Aktionsart, eds. Carl Vetters and Willy Vandeweghe. Belgian Journal of Linguistics 6, 1991 31–45. (d) Predication and sentence constitution in universal perspective. In: Semantic universals and universal se- mantics