Crop plants have defined roles in agricultural production and feeding the world. They are affected by several environmental and biological stresses, which range from soil salinity, drought, and climate change to exposure to diverse plant pathogens. These stresses pose risk to agricultural sustainability. To avoid the increasing biotic and abiotic pressure on crop plants, agrochemicals are extensively used in agriculture for attaining desirable yield and production of crops. However, the use of agrochemicals is also challenging the integrity of ecosystems. Thus, to maintain the integrity of ecosystem, sustainable measures for elevated crop production are required. Allelopathy, a process of chemical interactions between plants and other organisms, could be used in the management of several biotic and abiotic stresses if the basic mechanisms of the phenomena and plants with allelopathic potentials are known. Allelopathy has a promising future for its application in agriculture for natural weed management, improving soil health and suppressing plant diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss the importance of allelopathy in agriculture and its role in sustainability with a specific focus on weed management and crop protection.
, The Netherlands. Pudoc. Simulation monographs. Vol. 32 p. 147–181. Timmerman A., Feyen J. 2003. The wave model and its application; simulation of the substances water and agro-chemicals in the soil, crop and vadose environment. Re-vista Corpoica. Vol. 4(1) p. 36–41. Van Genuchten M. Th. 1980. A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Science Society America Journal. Vol. 44 p. 892– 898. Vanclooster M., Viaena J., Christiaens K. 1994. Wave a mathematical model for simulating water and agro-chemicals in the soil and
Agrochemical use of waste elemental sulphur in growing white mustard
In a one-year pot experiment the effect of waste elementary sulphur on the following parameters was observed: 1. on the chemical composition of mustard plants during the growing season, 2. on the yield of seeds, straw and oil, 3. on the chemical composition of seeds and 4. on the content of the water-soluble sulphur in the soil after the harvest.
Elemental sulphur was obtained as a waste material of petroleum refining and was incorporated into a 15-15-15 NPK fertiliser where it comprised 4%. The experiment had the following variants: 1) control (unfertilised); 2) NPK 1; 3) NPK 2; 4) NPKS 1; 5) NPKS 2. The smaller dose amounted to 3.3 g, the higher one to 6.7 g of the fertiliser per pot (6 kg of soil). Moreover all variants were performed in 2 different soils - a medium soil with neutral pH value and a heavy one with alkali pH value.
At the stage of 6 true leaves, the content of nitrogen in plants increased in accordance with its dose. Simultaneously, sulphur applied in the NPKS fertiliser improved nitrogen utilization. The difference between the variants fertilised with NPK and the variants with NPKS amounted to 38.9% in the neutral medium soil, whereas in the alkali heavy soil it was as low as 1.4%.
The yield of both seed and straw in the fertilised variants was statistically significantly higher than in the unfertilised control variant. However, there were observed no statistically significant differences between the variants with sulphur and the variants without sulphur although both the yield of the seed and straw in the variants with NPKS was higher than in the variants with NPK.
The application of elemental sulphur into the neutral medium soil increased the concentration of both nitrogen and sulphur in the mustard seed in comparison with the variants fertilised with NPK only. The difference between them comprises 1.8% and 9.0% in variants with the small and high dose, respectively. In the heavy soil, the trend was opposite.
The application of sulphur into both soils resulted in the increase of the oil content in comparison with the NPK variants.
Sulphur addition to NPK had a positive impact on the augmentation of the available sulphur content in the soil which can positively affect, particularly the following crops. Still, a drop in the pH value was not confirmed.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) originating from agrochemical industries have become an urgent environmental problem worldwide. Ordinary kriging, as an optimal geostatistical interpolation technique, has been proved to be sufficiently robust for estimating values with finite sampled data in most of the cases. In this study, ordinary kriging interpolation integrate with 3D visualization methods is applied to characterize the monochlorobenzene contaminated soil for an agrochemical industrial site located in Jiangsu province. Based on 944 soil samples collected by Geoprobe 540MT and monitored by SGS environmental monitoring services, 3D visualization in terms of the spatial distribution of pollutants in potentially contaminated soil, the extent and severity of the pollution levels in different layers, high concentration levels and isolines of monochlorobenzene concentrations in this area are provided. From the obtained results, more information taking into account the spatial heterogeneity of soil area will be helpful for decision makers to develop and implement the soil remediation strategy in the future.
The present study was designed to assess the adverse effects of the agrochemical Almix on comparative basis in gill, liver and kidney of Heteropneustes fossilis through histological and ultrastructural observations under field (8 g/acre) and laboratory (66.67 mg/L) conditions. Exposure duration of both experiments was 30 days. Gill showed atrophy in secondary lamellae, hypertrophied gill epithelium, damage in chloride and pillar cells, and detachment of chloride cells from gill epithelium under laboratory condition, but hypertrophy in gill epithelium and fusion in secondary lamellae were seen under field condition. In gill, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed fragmentation in microridges, hyper-secretion of mucus and loss of normal array in microridges, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) displayed dilated mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), abnormal sized vacuolation in chloride cells under laboratory condition. In liver, hypertrophied and pyknotic nuclei, disarrangement of hepatic cords, and cytoplasmic vacuolation were prominent under laboratory study but in field condition the liver showed little alterations. TEM study showed severe degeneration in RER and mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuolation under laboratory condition but dilated mitochondria were prominent in field observation. Kidney showed severe nephropathic effects including degenerative changes in proximal and distal convolute tubule, damage in glomerulus under light microscopy, while deformity in nucleus, fragmentation in RER, severe vacuolation and necrosis in kidney were prominent under TEM study. The results clearly demonstrated that responses were more prominent in laboratory than field study. Thus the responses displayed by different tissues of concerned fish species exposed to Almix could be considered as indications of herbicide toxicity in aquatic ecosystem.
. - Sušil, A. 2015. Results Of Agrochemical Testing Of Agricultural Soils In Period 2009-2014. Central Institute For Supervising And Testing In Agriculture Brno, 106 P. Isbn 978-80-7401-114-6 Šimanský, V. - Kováčik, P. 2015. Long-Term Effects Of Tillage And Fertilization On Ph And Sorption Parameters Of Haplic Luvisol. In Journal Of Elementology, Vol. 20, No. 4, Pp. 1033-1040. Zhao, F.J. - Fortune, S. - Barbosa, V.L. - Mcgrath, S.P. - Stobart, R. - Bilsborrow, P.E. - Booth, E.J. - Brown, A. - Robson, P. 2006. Effects Of Sulphur On Yield And Malting Quality Of Barley. In
Aiming to increase the use of natural resources and unexplored opportunities in industrial and agricultural practices, the marine algae biomass, that causes serious environmental problems in the Romanian Black Sea coast, was used in association with another two organic wastes, farmyard manure from cattle-breeding farms and sewage sludge resulted from the waste water treatment, to produce a compost suitable as organic fertilizer for plant cultivation in ecologic farming systems. Four variants of compost, first representing equal parts (33.33%) of those three components, and the other three proportions of 50% of each component, the difference being ensured in a ratio of 25% of each of the other two components, have been tested in a field experiment to assess their effects, both on the agro-chemical properties of the soil and on the sunflower plants development and crops. Until the phase of sunflower calathidia formation, the compost containing 50% farmyard manure influenced the best plant development in terms of height and number of leaves, then, at the end of vegetation period, the best plant development took place under the influence of compost prevalent in marine algae. The mobile forms of N and P were statistically differentiated depending on the dose of compost, the maximum dose generating the lowest content levels in the soil, as a result of higher absorption of these chemical elements in plants. The content of P and Ca in sunflower leaves recorded significant differences.
different specialities which were discussed in
five parallel sessions. In addition, a poster session with
250 posters also included the culture and pesticide pro-
tection of the tobacco plant. The subjects treated in the
various sessions were very broad. Besides the increasing
importance of natural plant protection agents, modern
biotechnological and genetic methods used for pest con-
trol and analysis of pest organisms in cultivars were a
major discussion topic. Manufacturers of agrochemicals
used the opportunity to present their newly developed
( Borriello et al ., 2012 ; Berruti et al ., 2014 ; Verzeaux et al ., 2016 , 2017 ) and agrochemical products ( Dangi et al ., 2017 ), such as fungicides, used in coated seeds to control pathogens can have undesirable effects on non-target, plant-beneficial microorganisms such as AMF ( Campagnac et al ., 2008 ), causing a reduction in species richness and diversity in AMF communities ( Gosling et al ., 2006 ). Several authors report higher levels of AMF colonization, higher propagule numbers or higher diversity in organic farming systems ( Oehl et al ., 2003
in China. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 9(1): 516–520. Loide V., Noges M., Rebane J., 2005. Assessment of the agro-chemical properties of the soil using the extraction solution Mehlich 3 in Estonia. Agronomy Research 3(1): 73–80. Mehlich A., 1984. Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 15(12): 1409–1416. Menzies N.W., Donn M.J., Kopittke P.M., 2007. Evaluation of extractants for estimation of the phytoavailable trace metals in soils. Environmental Pollution 145(1): 121