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. TREE , 14 (10), 389–394. Ulubas, C., Erunc, F. (2004). Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) status in Turkey and sensitive detection using advanced techniques. Turk. J. Agric. For. , 29 (2005), 251–257. Verma, N., Ram, R., Zaidi, A. A. (2005). In vitro production of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus -free begonias through chemo-and thermotherapy. Sci. Hortic., 103 , 239–247. Vos, P., Hogers, R., Bleeker, M., Reijans, M., van de Lee, T., Hornes, M., Frijters, A., Pot, J., Peleman, J., Kuiper, M., Zabeaum, M. (1995). AFLP: A new technique for DNA

Abstract

Apples and pears are among the most important commercial fruit species grown in Latvia. Because of suitability to local climatic conditions, mainly domestic cultivars and cultivars originating in neighbouring countries are grown. The planting material of pome fruits produced and used for establishment of new orchards in Latvia corresponds to the Conformitas Agraria Communitatis standard due to the unavailability of nuclear stock. To establish virus-tested, experimental nuclear stock for apple and pear, one to two years old candidate plants were exposed to thermotherapy at +38 °C for 40 to 70 days. The mother trees and candidate plants before treatment were tested for the presence of the four most widespread pome fruit viruses by RT-PCR. The shoot tips of the heat-treated plants were grafted onto seedling rootstocks and were re-tested for the four viruses by RT-PCR during the next three to five vegetation seasons. Several plants of apple cultivars ‘Dace’, ‘Zarja Alatau’, ‘Rubin’, and ‘Ausma’ remained infected either with Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple stem growing virus or Apple stem pitting virus after the thermotherapy. Tests on woody indicators were carried out to determine possible presence of graft-transmittable organisms according to EPPO guidelines for the establishment of nuclear stock material for pome fruits.

. Diekmann, M., Putter, C. A. J. (1996). FAO/IPGRI technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm. In: Diekmann, M., Putter, C. A. J. (eds.). Stone Fruits, No. 16. (pp. 38-39). Rome: FAO Publication Division. Domínguez, S., Aparicio, F., Sánchez-Navarro, J., Cano, A., Pallás, V., García-Brunton, J. (1998). Studies on the incidence of Ilarviruses and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apricot trees in the Murcia region (Spain) using serological and molecular hybridization methods. Acta Hort. , 472 , 203-210. García, J. A., Cambra, M. (2007). Plum pox

Abstract

The phytosanitary status of wild growing stone fruit trees and shrubs was examined in surveys conducted in 2013 and 2014 in the region of Central Bohemia, Czech Republic. A total of 159 leaf samples were collected (42 cherries, 77 bird cherries, 10 cherry plums, 13 blackthorns, 2 round plums, 15 plums) and tested for the presence of Plum pox virus (PPV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Cherry virus A (CVA), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV), Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV), and Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Totally 28.3% of the investigated trees and shrubs were infected by at least one monitored virus. Mixed infection occurred in 5 out of 159 trees (3.1%). PPV was the most widespread virus (13.2% of samples), followed by PDV (11.3%). Contrary to these two most relevant viral pathogens, the incidence of CLRV and CVA was negligible in individually growing trees of the genus Prunus and ApMV, ACLSV, CGRMV, and CNRMV were not detected at all.

. Concerning the stone fruits, certifi cation includes, among others, the ab- sence of Plum pox virus (PPV), Apple chlorot- ic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Prunus necrotic ring- spot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) and the European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma (ESFY). In order to determine the presence © Benaki Phytopathological Institute Hellenic Plant Protection Journal - Special Issue46 of these pathogens in Greece, fi eld samples from new peach orchards of the prefecture of Imathia were collected during the years 2010