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, Cheng Y, Huang J, et al. Association between renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphism and essential hypertension: a community-based study. J Hum Hypertens. 2009; 23(3):176-81. DOI: 10.1038/jhh.2008.123 11. Zhao J, Qin X, Li S, Zeng Z. Association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke: an updated meta-analysis of 47,026 subjects from 105 case-control studies. J Neurol Sci. 2014; 345(1-2):37-47. DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2014.07.023 12. Niu W, Qi Y, Hou S, Zhai X, Zhou W, Qiu C. Haplotype-based association of the renin-angiotensin-al-dosterone system

with fiber type distribution. Physiol Genomics 32:58-63. Woods D, Hickman M, Jamshidi Y, Brull D, Vassiliou V, Jones A, et al. 2001. Elite swimmers and the D allele of the ACE I/D polymorphism. Hum Genet 108:230-32. Yang N, MacArthur D, Gulbin JP, Hahn AG, Beggs AH, Easteal S, et al. 2003. ACTN3 Genotype Is Associated with Human Elite Athletic Performance. Am J Hum Genet 73:627-31.

References Bray MS, Hagberg JM, Pérusse L, Rankinen T, Roth SM, Wolfarth B, Bouchard C. The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2006-2007 update. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2009; 41: 35-73 Bustamante-Ara N, Santiago C, Verde Z, Yvert T, Gómez-Gallego F, Rodríguez-Romo G, González-Gil P, Serra-Rexach JA, Ruiz JR, Lucia A. ACE and ACTN3 genes and muscle phenotypes in nonagenarians. Int J Sports Med, 2010; 31: 221-224 Cam S, Colakoglu M, Colakoglu S, Sekuri C, Berdeli A. ACE I/D gene polymorphism and aerobic endurance development in

maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), in details, a relative lower increase in peak VO 2 after 12 weeks of endurance training. This observation was confirmed by Cięszczyk et al. (2011) and Rubio et al. (2005) in a group of 127 Polish rowers and 104 top-level Spanish male endurance athletes (cyclists and runners), respectively. However, Ginevičienė et al. (2014) reported opposite results when 84 Lithuanian athletes were compared with 260 controls, which make these observations ambiguous. ACE (I/D) (rs4340) Via cleavage an angiotensin I at a particular location, the

(ACE) Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism. UNOAJ 5(1):00155. Dankova Z, Sivakova D, Luptakova L, Blazicek P. 2009. Association of ACE, (I/D) polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and hypertension in two ethnic groups in Slovakia. Anthropol Anz 67(3):305–316. Kim K. 2009. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism with obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and exercise-mediated changes in Korean women. Eur J App Physiol 105(6):879–87. Lima RM, Leite TK, Pereira RW, Rabelo HT, Roth SM, Oliveira RJ. 2011. ACE and ACTN3 Genotypes in Older

angiotensin converting enzyme gene with essential hypertension. Int J Hum Genet. 2004; 4:207-13. 13. Alvi FM, Hasnain S. ACE I/D and G2350A Polymorphisms in Pakistani hypertensive population of Punjab. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension. 2009; 3:471-80. 14. Zhu X, Bouzekri N, Southam L, Cooper RS, Adeyemo A, McKenzie CA, Luke A, Chen G, Elston RC, Ward R. Linkage and association analysis of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-gene polymorphisms with ACE concentration and blood pressure. Am J Hum Genet. 2001; 68:1139-48. 10.1086/320104 15. Pan M, Jiang MH, Wei MF, Liu

Abstract

Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to find the distribution pattern of insertion/deletion polymorphism (ACE I/D) of angiotensin convering enzyme gene in type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type I diabetic nephropathy (T1DN) and to discover the relationship between DD genotype and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Material and method: We examined the frequency of ACE I/D polymorphism in 416 patients, 237 of them with type 1 diabetes (controls) and 179 with diabetic nephropathy (cases). The ACE I/D polymorphism was detected by PCR using three oligonucleotide primers in a single reaction. Results: The major determinants of the velocity of progression of nephropathy (slope) results to be cholesterol, triglycedides and GFR, especially in patients with ID and DD genotypes. Conclusions: Data of this investigation conclude that the presence of DD genotype or D allele alone in type 1 diabetic patients with and without nephropathy is unable to influence the progression of diabetic nephropathy independent of other factors.

Summary

The youngest swimming sport included in the Summer Olympic Games since 1984 is synchronized swimming. Since the synchronized swimming is still growing popularity and professionalization, it is important to search for ways to improve sports performance. There are few scientific studies focusing also on the biological and motor indicators of top athletes. The present study examined biological and motor variables of elite synchronized swimmers (SYN, N = 13) in ages of 16.5 ± 3.23 years and compare the frequency of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene genotypes among elite female synchronized swimmers and the non-athletic control group (CON, N = 30) in ages of 16.0 ± 0.6 years. The motor variables were measured using Optojump system before and after water training session. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. The ACE I/D variation differences between groups were identified by Chi-Square test. The results of motor variables obtained were evaluated statistically using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. The strength of association between selected biological and motor variables was measured by Spearman’s correlation. We provided evidence for significant differences of variation of the ACE I/D polymorphism between observed groups. A significant correlation among biological and motor parameters of SYN was demonstrated among the percentage of fat and the time of reflection (p = 0.042), the basal resting heart rate and the jump height (p = 0.006) and among the basal resting heart rate and the power (p = 0.012). The SYN significantly increased only their contact time in jumping (p < 0.016) after the training session. Based on the results we state that the effect of intervention in the stimulation of the reflective capabilities due to the training session in the aquatic environment was not confirmed in the study.

Cholangitis of Pancreatitis? Does the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genotype Favor Either?

Acute cholangitis and pancreatitis are serious complications of gallstones, with considerable morbidity and mortality. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an exopeptidase that is important in regulating blood pressure, metabolizing bradykinin and in maintaining an inflammatory response. To determine whether the ACE genotype determines occurrence of cholangitis or pancreatitis we examined ACE I/D genotypes in 31 patients who had cholangitis, 44 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 157 healthy individuals. The patients had been hospitalized at the Department and Intensive Care Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. The patients were recalled 4 years later and their prognosis was evaluated. The ACE II genotype was found at a higher frequency in the cholangitis and biliary pancreatitis patients when compared with the healthy subjects (p <0.05). There was no significant difference between cholangitis and biliary pancreatitis cases regarding the genotype and allele distribution (p >0.05). Recurrence of infection occurred more frequently in the patients with the DD genotype, although it was not significant according to the first assessment (p >0.05). The ACE gene polymorphism did not seem to favor development of either cholangitis or pancreatitis.

atherosclerosis was demonstrated in subjects with T2DM with the DD genotype of the rs 4646994 (ACE I/D) polymorphism in comparison with subjects with other genotypes ( Table 4 ). Table 2 Comparison of markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the beginning and the end of the study with regard to the rs4646994 (angiotensin-converting-enzyme insertion/deletion) and rs4341 polymorphisms. rs4646994 (ACE I/D) Enrollment Endpoint II ID DD p Value II ID DD p Value Intima media thickness (µm) 998.0±147.0 1002.0±178.0 1012.0±178.0 0.62 1048