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Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to find the distribution pattern of insertion/deletion polymorphism (ACE I/D) of angiotensin convering enzyme gene in type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type I diabetic nephropathy (T1DN) and to discover the relationship between DD genotype and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Material and method: We examined the frequency of ACE I/D polymorphism in 416 patients, 237 of them with type 1 diabetes (controls) and 179 with diabetic nephropathy (cases). The ACE I/D polymorphism was detected by PCR using three oligonucleotide primers in a single reaction. Results: The major determinants of the velocity of progression of nephropathy (slope) results to be cholesterol, triglycedides and GFR, especially in patients with ID and DD genotypes. Conclusions: Data of this investigation conclude that the presence of DD genotype or D allele alone in type 1 diabetic patients with and without nephropathy is unable to influence the progression of diabetic nephropathy independent of other factors.
The youngest swimming sport included in the Summer Olympic Games since 1984 is synchronized swimming. Since the synchronized swimming is still growing popularity and professionalization, it is important to search for ways to improve sports performance. There are few scientific studies focusing also on the biological and motor indicators of top athletes. The present study examined biological and motor variables of elite synchronized swimmers (SYN, N = 13) in ages of 16.5 ± 3.23 years and compare the frequency of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene genotypes among elite female synchronized swimmers and the non-athletic control group (CON, N = 30) in ages of 16.0 ± 0.6 years. The motor variables were measured using Optojump system before and after water training session. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. The ACE I/D variation differences between groups were identified by Chi-Square test. The results of motor variables obtained were evaluated statistically using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. The strength of association between selected biological and motor variables was measured by Spearman’s correlation. We provided evidence for significant differences of variation of the ACE I/D polymorphism between observed groups. A significant correlation among biological and motor parameters of SYN was demonstrated among the percentage of fat and the time of reflection (p = 0.042), the basal resting heart rate and the jump height (p = 0.006) and among the basal resting heart rate and the power (p = 0.012). The SYN significantly increased only their contact time in jumping (p < 0.016) after the training session. Based on the results we state that the effect of intervention in the stimulation of the reflective capabilities due to the training session in the aquatic environment was not confirmed in the study.
Cholangitis of Pancreatitis? Does the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genotype Favor Either?
Acute cholangitis and pancreatitis are serious complications of gallstones, with considerable morbidity and mortality. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an exopeptidase that is important in regulating blood pressure, metabolizing bradykinin and in maintaining an inflammatory response. To determine whether the ACE genotype determines occurrence of cholangitis or pancreatitis we examined ACE I/D genotypes in 31 patients who had cholangitis, 44 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 157 healthy individuals. The patients had been hospitalized at the Department and Intensive Care Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. The patients were recalled 4 years later and their prognosis was evaluated. The ACE II genotype was found at a higher frequency in the cholangitis and biliary pancreatitis patients when compared with the healthy subjects (p <0.05). There was no significant difference between cholangitis and biliary pancreatitis cases regarding the genotype and allele distribution (p >0.05). Recurrence of infection occurred more frequently in the patients with the DD genotype, although it was not significant according to the first assessment (p >0.05). The ACE gene polymorphism did not seem to favor development of either cholangitis or pancreatitis.
atherosclerosis was demonstrated in subjects with T2DM with the DD genotype of the rs 4646994 (ACEI/D) polymorphism in comparison with subjects with other genotypes ( Table 4 ). Table 2 Comparison of markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the beginning and the end of the study with regard to the rs4646994 (angiotensin-converting-enzyme insertion/deletion) and rs4341 polymorphisms. rs4646994 (ACEI/D) Enrollment Endpoint II ID DD p Value II ID DD p Value Intima media thickness (µm) 998.0±147.0 1002.0±178.0 1012.0±178.0 0.62 1048