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Labeo calbasu is not reared in aquaculture because of the unavailability of proper feed and the risk of infection. The ability of probiotics to promote growth and immunological defense barriers in the gut has led to the use of autochthonous probiotic bacteria. Hence, the present study was conducted to screen potential probiotic bacteria from the gut of L. calbasu and to supplement the same to study the effect on growth and immunity. Strains with probiotic properties were assayed for exogenous enzyme production and identified based on phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide homology. Four of nine isolates showed promising antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila. The strains survived in relatively low pH and high bile concentrations and were investigated for hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation. Based on the positive results of this study, the LC1 and LC4 strains (analysed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and showing similarity with Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus and Stenotrophomonas sp.) were further incorporated into diets to explore their probiotic effects on the growth performance and immunity of the fish. Administering the probiotics elevated growth parameters and benefitted the immune system by increasing the phagocytic index and decreasing the mortality rate with exposure to A. hydrophila.


To determine the effects of Terminalia catappa extract (TCE) immersion on the survival and hematological profile of Betta sp, a group of fish was immersed in 500 ppm TCE and compared with the control group. After three days of immersion, survival, leukocyte (WBC), erythrocyte (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), platelet (PLT), and differential leukocyte counts were compared between the two groups. Surviving fish from each group were then divided into three subgroups: subgroup without injection; subgroup injected with normal saline; subgroup injected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Survival, WBC, RBC, Hb, Hct, PLT, the percentage and number of lymphocyte, monocyte, and granulocytes post injection were evaluated for 48 h. The results showed that the survival of immersed fish was significantly higher than that in the control. No significant differences in the hematological profile were noted between the control and the immersed fish. The WBC of control subgroup (A. hydrophila injection) was significantly increased after 24 h. The fish immersed and injected with A. hydrophila had the highest PLT. The number of lymphocytes of all subgroups of fish was stable while the percentage of monocytes and granulocytes of the subgroups of immersed fish were increased. This finding suggested that 500 ppm of TCE is beneficial for improving survival, blood profile, and resistance to A. hydrophila.


The main goal of this study was to determine in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of various Ficus species against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated locally from infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) with the aim of providing scientific rationale for the use of the plant in the treatment of bacterial infections induced by Aeromonas spp. in fish. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Muller-Hinton agar with the disc diffusion method. In the present study, most ethanolic extracts proved effective against the A. hydrophila tested, with 10-12 mm inhibition zones observed. A. hydrophila demonstrated the highest susceptibility to F. pumila. Among various species of Ficus with moderate activity against A. hydrophila, the highest antibacterial activities were noted for F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea, F. hispida, and F. lyrata. Thus, Ficus can be used as a natural antiseptic and antimicrobial agent in veterinary practice. Further investigations need to be conducted to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds that can then be subjected to detailed pharmacological studies and the development of clinical applications. The alarming rate of increasing resistance in bacterial pathogens in aquaculture environments means that medicinal plants with antibacterial properties are very important as natural resources of new active compounds.


Aeromonas hydrophila is a valuable indicator of the quality of water polluted by sewage and pathogens that pose a risk for humans and cold-blooded animals, including fi sh. The main aim of this research was to evaluate anthropogenic pollution of river water based on genetic diversity of 82 A. hydrophila strains by means of RAPD, semi-random AP-PCR (ISJ) and the rep-BOX conservative repeats test. Genetic diversity of A. hydrophila was HT = 0.28 (SD = 0.02) for all DNA markers (RAPD, semi random and rep-BOX). None of the analyzed electrophoretic patterns was identical, implying that there were many sources of strain transmission. The presence of genes for aerolysin (aerA), hemolysin (ahh1) and the cytotoxic enzyme complex (AHCYTOGEN) was verifi ed for all tested strains, and drug resistance patterns for tetracycline, enrofl oxacin and erythromycin were determined. The most diverse A. hydrophila strains isolated from river water were susceptible to enrofl oxacine (HS = 0.27), whereas less diverse strains were susceptible to erythromycin (HS = 0.24). The presence of the multidrug resistance marker (ISJ4-25; 1100 bp locus) in the examined strains (resistant to three analyzed drugs) indicates that intensive fi sh cultivation affects the microbiological quality of river water.


This study investigated the efficacy of Tamarind Leaves (TL) and Mango Leaves (ML) with Oxytetracycline (OXY) on growth performance, haematoimmunological and disease resistance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles against Aeromonas hydrophila. Experimental diets consist of control (0%), TL2 (1%), TL3 (2%), ML4 (1%), ML5 (2%), OXY6 (30mg/kg diet), (TL+ML) 7, (TL+OXY) 8, (ML+OXY) 9 and (TL+ML+OXY) 10. The fish (3.02±0.01g) were replicated twice with 20 fish per replicate and were fed twice daily at 3% body weight of 40% crude protein for twelve weeks (8 weeks for feeding trial and 4 weeks for challenge test). Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), Lymphocytes (LYM), Globulin (GLO), Amino Alanine Transferase (ALT) and Aspertate Amino Transferase (AST) contents were ascertained using standard technique. The fish were infected with A. hydrophila at 5.94 log10 CFU/ml interperitoneally and fed different diets to evaluate their Relative Percent of Survival (RPS). Data was subjected to descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance at P=0.05. Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed treated diets had higher growth rates than the control diet but C. gariepinus fed (TL+ML+OXY) 10 had a significantly higher MWG and SGR of 7.74±0.69 g and 0.97±0.01 g, respectively. The PCV (44.0±2.00%), Hb (14.7±2.00 g/dl), LYM (37.0±2.00), GLO (42.0 ±2.00 g/dl) were higher in the C. gariepinus fed (TL+ML+OXY) 10 than the control diet. The AST and ALT values among the treated groups were lower than the values in the control at the post-challenge test. The RPS against A. hydrophila was higher in the treated groups (100%) than in the control (0%). Fish fed tamarind and mango leaves had enhanced mean weight gain and were more resistant to A. hydrophila infection.


Introduction: Immune-potentiating functions of Lactobacillus plantarum strains in the common carp were evaluated.

Material and Methods: Fourteen days of feeding fish dry diet supplemented with the bacteria provided parameters of nonspecific humoral immunity (lysozyme, ceruloplasmin, γ-globulin, total protein levels, and serum bactericidal activity) and cellular immunity (pinocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and potential killing activity of organ phagocytes), as well as the proliferative response of organ lymphocytes stimulated with mitogens. The resistance of fish to infection with Aeromonas hydrophila was also determined.

Results: Dietary supplementation with L. plantarum had a substantial influence on the activity of organ phagocytes, especially the potential killing activity of head kidney cells. A significant increase in the proliferative activity of LPS-stimulated B lymphocytes and in the levels of γ-globulins and total protein was observed. The supplemented diet conveyed higher resistance than the control diet as the cumulative fish mortalities after infection with A. hydrophila were 65% and 85%, respectively.

Conclusion: The results indicate that dietary supplementation with L. plantarum stimulates the antibacterial resistance of common carp and may reinforce defence against bacterial infections, but further studies need to be conducted.


Introduction: Ornamental fish can suffer from different bacterial diseases. Among them the most prevalent are infections caused by Aeromonas, Shewanella, Citrobacter, Plesiomonas, Edwardsiella, and Pseudomonas. But there is a broad spectrum of rarely identified bacteria which may be causative agents of diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the species of bacteria pathogenic for fish which are prevalent in aquariums.

Material and Methods: Bacteria were isolated from infected ornamental fish from pet shops and private aquariums in the Lublin region in 2015 and classified to species using MALDI-TOF MS.

Results: A total of 182 isolates from ornamental fish were identified. The most frequent bacteria found in diseased fish were Aeromonas veronii (30.8% of total number of strains), A. hydrophila (18.7%), Shewanella putrefaciens (7.1%), Citrobacter freundii (7.1%), Pseudomonas spp. (7.1%), Shewanella baltica (4.9%), and Plesiomonas shigelloides (3.3%).

Conclusion: Isolated bacterial species are facultative pathogens for fish and humans and may be isolated from fish without apparent symptoms of the disease.


Antimicrobial resistance properties of 32 Aeromonas strains isolated from fresh scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay)) marketed in Korea were assessed. All the Aeromonas spp., including A. salmonicida, were mesophilic and grew very well at 37°C. The isolates were tested for susceptibility to 19 antimicrobials belonging to eight antimicrobial classes. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, which means they were resistant to five or more antimicrobials. Higher resistance rates (≥ 50%) were observed for ampicillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, imipenem, meropenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nalidixic acid while intermediate resistance was also determined. PCR assays revealed the presence of many antimicrobial resistance genes among the isolates in varying combinations. Among them, some isolates harbored higher numbers of resistant genes, e.g., A. veronii-V1 (aac(6’)-Ib, tetE, qnrS, IntI1), A. salmonicida–SL10 (IntI1, blaCTX, aac(3’)-Ib, aac(6’)-Ib, qnrS), A. hydrophila–H13 (IntI1, blaTEM, qnrS, aac(6’)-Ib, strA-strB). However, neither the blaSHV, blaIMP, tetB, qnrA, qnrB, and aphAI-IAB genes nor class1 integrons were detected in any of the isolates. Discrepancies between phenotypic and genetic resistance traits were observed in some isolates. With respect to outcomes, scallops are proposed as a source of multi-drug resistant Aeromonas spp. that harbor antimicrobial resistant genes.

anthropogenic pollution of river water based on genetic diversity of 82 A. hydrophila strains by means of RAPD, semi-random AP-PCR (ISJ) and the rep-BOX conservative repeats test. Genetic diversity of A. hydrophila was HT = 0.28 (SD = 0.02) for all DNA markers (RAPD, semi random and rep-BOX). None of the analyzed electrophoretic patterns was identical, implying that there were many sources of strain transmission. The presence of genes for aerolysin (aerA), hemolysin (ahh1) and the cytotoxic enzyme complex (AHCYTOGEN) was verifi ed for all tested strains, and drug

farms in Poland. The causes of the diseases may be various factors; however, the most important among bacterial infections are those caused by motile Aeromonas : A. hydrophila , A. sobria , and A. caviae . Clinical symptoms observed during health disorders vary depending on the type of disease. In cases of MAI, skin ulceration and gill and fin lesions are most frequently noticed. The disease can also become a systemic infection, and then it is called MAS. The other psychrophilic Aeromonas , Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida , causes furunculosis in