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Indoor Exposure to Mould Allergens

Indoor Exposure to Mould Allergens

Humid indoor environments may be colonised by allergenic filamentous microfungi (moulds), Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., and Alternaria spp. in particular. Mould-induced respiratory diseases are a worldwide problem. In the last two decades, mould allergens and glucans have been used as markers of indoor exposure to moulds. Recently, mould allergens Alt a 1 (Alternaria alternata) and Asp f 1 (Aspergillus fumigatus) have been analysed in various environments (residential and occupational) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, which use monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Household Alt a 1 and Asp f 1 levels were usually under the limit of the method detection. By contrast, higher levels of mould allergens were found in environments with high levels of bioaerosols such as poultry farms and sawmills. Data on allergen Alt a 1 and Asp f 1 levels in agricultural settings may provide information on possible colonisation of respective moulds and point out to mould-related diseases in occupants.

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Determination of Aspergillus Fumigatus Allergen 1 in Poultry Farms Using the Enzyme Immunoassay

Determination of Aspergillus Fumigatus Allergen 1 in Poultry Farms Using the Enzyme Immunoassay

Poultry farms contain high levels of allergenic fungi, and Aspergillus spp. is the most common genus of moulds. Aspergillus fumigatus antigens are responsible for the development of several respiratory diseases including asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Asp f 1, a major allergen of Asperillus fumigatus in 37 indoor dust samples collected from four poultry farms in a rural area of the Zagreb County (Croatia) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. More than 62 % of dust samples had detectable Asp f 1 levels (limit of detection 3.6 ng g-1). The overall mean Asp f 1 level was 17.9 ng g-1 [range (3.8 to 72.4) ng g-1]. Satisfactory results were obtained for analytical within-run imprecision (6.7 %), between-run imprecision (10.5 %), and accuracy (91 % to 115 %). Microclimate parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, and velocity) were within the recommended ranges in all poultry farms. This study has shown that Asp f 1 settles on dust at poultry farms and that occupational exposure to this allergen deserves monitoring in livestock buildings.

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Comparative Pathomorphological, Mycological and Molecular Examination of Turkey Poults with Different Immunological Status Experimentally Infected with Aspergillus fumigatus

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the pathological, mycological and molecular findings in turkey poults with different immunological status experimentally infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. The investigation was carried out 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after intratracheal inoculation of 5.056×107 spores of A. fumigatus to 14-day-old turkey poults in group G-1, as well as to turkey poults in group G-2 which were treated prior to infection with dexamethasone. A. fumigatus was isolated on day 1 p.i. in both groups, but the number of positive samples was bigger in group G-1. A. fumigatus was isolated from the respiratory organs of group G-1as early as on day 1 and 3 p.i. in 4 out of 12 examined specimens (33%). On day 7 p.i. A. fumigatus was possible to isolate from the respiratory organs of 50% of infected birds, on day 14 in 83.33% and on day 21 p.i. A. fumigatus was isolated in 6 out of 6 sacrificed turkey poults (100%). In dexamethasone-treated group A. fumigatus isolates from the respiratory organs on day 1 and 3 p.i. were same as in group G-1, whereas on days 7 and 14 p.i. the number of turkey poults positive to A. fumigatus increased in comparison with the untreated G-1 group. The histopathological lesions in turkey poults treated with dexamethasone developed earlier, were more intensive and extensive. The mycological and nested PCR results revealed a higher number of samples positive for the presence of A. fumigatus DNA in the group G-2, pretreated with dexamethasone.

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Screening of metabolites from endophytic fungi of some Nigerian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activities

6 0 0 22 0 E. coli 0 6 8 0 0 16 0 Ketoconazole (50 μg/ml) DMSO C. albicans 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 A. fumigatus 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 Results A total of five endophytic fungi was isolated, two from N. laevis (NL-L1 and NL-L2), one from O. gratissimum (SL-L1), and two from C. papaya (PPL-LAC and PPL-LE2). In Table 1 , it can be observed that the extracts of NL-L2, SL-L1, and PPL-LE2 displayed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive test bacteria. PPL

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Spergilli on Building Partitions Infested with Moulds in Residential Housing and Public Utility Premises

Abstract

Aspergilli constitute a serious risk to the health of the inhabitants of infested rooms. Mycological analysis conducted in buildings infected with moulds in the area of the Lubuskie province (Poland) demonstrated the presence of 9 species of Aspergillus moulds: A. carbonarius A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, A ustus and A. versicolor. The highest frequency (4 - frequently) was observed in the case of A. versicolor, while frequency 3 (fairly frequently) was characteristic of such species as A. flavus and A. niger. A. ustus was encountered with frequency 2 (individually), while frequency 1 (sporadically) referred to four species: A. carbonarius, A. clavatus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus. Because Aspergillus versicolor occurs with the highest frequency in buildings, and as a consequence of this, synthesizes toxic and carcinogenic sterigmatocystin (ST), it constitutes the greatest risk to the inhabitants of the infested premises. All species of Aspergillus present on building partitions are able to synthesise mycotoxins, are pathogens and may cause allergies.

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Incidence of post-harvest disease and airborne fungal spores in a vegetable market

Incidence of post-harvest disease and airborne fungal spores in a vegetable market

The sampling of bioaerosols has been carried out using a Rotorod sampler as well as by exposing culture plates. The screening of some common vegetables was also done for the isolation of fungi as market pathogens to study post-harvest diseases. Altogether, fifty nine fungal spore types and 78 species of 33 genera belonging to different groups were recorded respectively on the rotorod strips and on exposed Petri dishes. Many saprophytic and pathogenic fungi were found to be associated with sampled vegetables from the market. In all forty-six fungal species belonging to 26 genera were recovered from five varieties of vegetables collected from the samemarket. The most dominant forms of fungi were of Aspergillus followed by Cladosporium, Penicillium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Curvularia, Trichoderma, and Rhizopus. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium herbarum, found to be dominant during the period of investigation. Important mycotoxin-producing fungi such as A. flavus, A. fumigatus and Fusarium moniliforme were isolated from the vegetables collected from the market.

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Magnesium and iron nanoparticles production using microorganisms and various salts

Abstract

Response of five fungi and two bacteria to different salts of magnesium and iron for production of nanoparticles was studied. Pochonia chlamydosporium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were exposed to three salts of magnesium while Curvularia lunata, Chaetomium globosum, A. fumigatus, A. wentii and the bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis and Bacillus coagulans were exposed to two salts of iron for nanoparticle production. The results revealed that P. chlamydosporium induces development of extracellular nanoparticles in MgCl2 solution while A. fumigatus produces also intracellular nanoparticles when exposed to MgSO4 solution. C. globosum was found as the most effective in producing nanoparticles when exposed to Fe2O3 solution. The FTIR analysis of the nanoparticles obtained from Fe2O3 solution showed the peaks similar to iron (Fe). In general, the species of the tested microbes were selective to different chemicals in their response for synthesis of nanoparticles. Further studies on their characterization and improving the efficiency of promising species of fungi need to be undertaken before tapping their potential as nanonutrients for plants.

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Antibacterial, cytotoxic and trypanocidal activities of marine-derived fungi isolated from Philippine macroalgae and seagrasses

Abstract

The occurrence and bioactivities of marine-derived fungi are evaluated in this paper. A total of 16 morphospecies of marine-derived fungi (MDF) were isolated from four host macroalgae and two seagrasses and identified as belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Sclerotinia, Thamnidium and Trichoderma, including five mycelia sterilia. Among these host organisms, the rhodophyte Laurencia intermedia harboured the highest number of isolated MDF. Selected MDF were then assayed and showed to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8-19 mm zone of inhibition) and Staphylococcus aureus (6-19 mm zone of inhibition), and were cytotoxic against the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplii (LD50: 201.56-948.37 μg mL−1). The screening led to the selection of five of the most bioactive morphospecies, all belonging to the genus Aspergillus. These marine aspergilli were subjected to β-tubulin gene sequence analysis for species identification, and to mass production in different culture media with or without marine salts, and screening of the crude culture extracts for their cytotoxic and trypanocidal activities. Aspergillus tubingensis cultivated in potato dextrose broth with marine salt proved to be the most cytotoxic against P388 (IC50: 1028 ng mL−1) and HeLa (IC50: 1301 ng mL−1) cancer cells. On the other hand, A. fumigatus cultivated in malt extract broth without marine salt was shown to be the most potent against Trypanosoma congolense (IC50: 298.18 ng mL−1). Our study therefore showed that salinity may influence the bioactivities of some species of MDF.

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Mycoflora of Maize in Niger State, Nigeria

Abstract

Fungi have been associated with contamination and spoilage of food. These organisms are known to thrive in different weather and environmental conditions. Maize kernel obtained from field, store and market from 25 Local Government Areas of Niger State within the month of August to September were analyzed for fungi occurrence using standard methods. Ten different fungus; Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. parasiticus, Mucor spp, Fusarium spp, Penicillium spp, Yeast and Rhizopus spp, were identified and isolated from the maize kernel. From the agro-ecological zones of the state, the most predominant fungi were Aspergillus species (241/345), Rhizopus spp (41/345) and Mucor spp (37/345) while Penicilium spp and yeast were the least identified. Within the zones, Aspergillus species have the highest occurrence; wet (65/95), driest (63/95), wettest (56/95) and dry zone (54/95) zones. The highest occurrence of fungi was found in the market sample (129) followed by store (112) and field (104). High percentage occurrence of 11.6% was recorded in Suleja, Wushishi, and Borgu Local Government Area, followed by 10.6, 10.1, 8.7, 9.7, 9.2, 8.7 and 8.2% in Bosso, Tafa, Madalla, Minna, Paiko, Bida and Sabon wuse respectively. Mold species known to be mycotoxin producers were reported in this work. This poses as a risk factor to food safety.

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Long-term follow-up: tuberculosis, bronchiectasis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

hospitalized after 2 months with worsening of general and respiratory symptoms and with recurrent haemoptysis. Lateral flow assay (LDBio Diagnostic, France) for A. fumigatus was positive ( Figure 4 ). Antifungal therapy was restarted. Figure 4 Positive lateral flow assay for A. fumigatus (LDBio Diagnostic, France). Discussion Tuberculosis is among the most impactful infectious causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide ( 6 ). Even though the majority of the TB cases could be efficiently treated, patients with cured respiratory TB may suffer from lifelong

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