References Adachi, S. and Ueda, N. (2014). Combined plasma carburizing and nitriding of sprayed AISI 316Lsteel coating for improved wear resistance. Surface and Coatings Technology, [online] Volume 259 (A), pp. 44-49. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897214005829 [Accessed 11 Jul. 2014]. Burakowski, T. and Wierzchoń, T. (1995). Inżynieria powierzchni metali. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowo-Techniczne. Chen, X., Li, J., Cheng, X., Wang, H. and Huang, Z. (2018). Effect of heat treatment on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion
The study reported in this paper was undertaken to assess whether certain ecologically-disastrous surface treatments, such as chemical and electrochemical treatment could be replaced with ozonation. The proposed technology is both ecologically-sound and relatively inexpensive. The research works were conducted on 316L steel substrates and involved photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The band positions on the review spectrum provide the basis for the qualitative identification of the atoms forming the surface layer, whereas their intensity – data for the calculation of the total concentration of these atoms in the analysed layer. High resolution spectra are used to determine the type of chemical bonds – based on the characteristic numbers of chemical shift. The results of tests on the state of surface layer energy of 316L steel substrate following ozone treatment are also presented. The conducted tests and the analysis of the obtained results indicate that ozone treatment effectively removes atmospheric carbon contaminants off the specimen surface. The test results show a decrease in atmospheric carbon on samples after ozone treatment compared to untreated samples. Moreover, results show an increase in the value of the free surface energy in specimens subjected to ozone treatment.
References  Glaeser W.A., Materials for Tribology, Tribology Series, 20,Elsevier, 1992.  Skołek-Stefaniszyn E., Kaminski J., Sobczak J., Wierzchoń T., Modifying the properties of AISI 316Lsteel by glow discharge assisted low-temperature nitriding and oxynitriding, Vacuum 85 (2010) 164-169.  Skołek-Stefaniszyn E., Burdynska S., Mroz W., Wierzchoń T., Structure and wear resistance of the composite layers produced by glow discharge nitriding and PLD method on AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel, Vacuum 83 (2009) 1442-1447.  Li Y., Wang Z., Wang L
The effects of turning 316L steel in a laser assisted machining are presented in this paper. The properties of 316L stainless steel are also shown in this article. In order to show correlation between the technological parameters, microgeometry of cutting tools and geometrical structure of surface, turning of material in grade 316L supported by laser has been executed. In addition, optical examination of cutting inserts has been performed and geometrical measurements of machined surfaces have been taken. The results of researches on the effects of the technological parameters and cutting tool’s microgeometry on the geometrical structure of the 316L steel surface after turning in LAM conditions are described.
The paper is a report of the examination of the tribological wear characteristics of certain dental metal biomaterials. In the study, tests were undertaken on the following materials: 316L steel, NiCrMo alloy, technically pure titanium (ASTM-grade 2) and Ti6Al4V ELI alloy (ASTM-grade 5). The tribological tests were performed in artificial saliva to determine the coefficient of friction and wear factor; the traces of wear were then ascertained through SEM. The significance of variations in the wear factor, was subsequently assessed by the U Mann-Whitney test. The resistance to wear in the ball-on-disc test under in vitro conditions was observed for the tested materials in the following order: NiCrMo>316L>Ti6Al4V>Ti grade 2.
Electrochemical polishing of metals and alloys is one of the most currently used finishing treatments, covering metallic biomaterials with complicated shapes (coronary stents, prostheses, etc.). A standard electropolishing (EP) process has been recently modified by including a magnetic field, and called the magnetoelectropolishing (MEP). Many surface properties and even mechanical features may be modified and improved by MEP. The changes are concerned with the surface film composition which undergo a modification. For the present studies, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was applied to measure the surface film composition on AISI 316L stainless steel. In conclusion both Cr-X/Fe-X compounds ratio as well as Cr/Fe total ratio of the 316L steel after EP and MEP were calculated and compared to reveal the advantage of the magnetic field used.
Hydrogen can be a good alternative to fossil fuels under the conditions of world's crisis as an effective energy carrier derived from renewable resources. Among all the known methods of hydrogen production, water electrolysis gives the ecologically purest hydrogen, so it is of importance to maximize the efficiency of this process. The authors consider the influence of plasma sprayed Ni-Al protective coating of 316L steel anode-cathode electrodes in DC electrolysis. In a long-term (24 h) process the anode corrodes strongly, losing Cr and Ni ions which are transferred to the electrolyte, while only minor corrosion of the cathode occurs. At the same time, the composition of anode and cathode electrodes protected by Ni-Al coating changes only slightly during a prolonged electrolysis. As the voltammetry and Tafel plots evidence, the Ni-Al coating protects both the anode and cathode from the corrosion and reduces the potential of hydrogen evolution. The results obtained show that such a coating works best in the case of steel electrodes.
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austenitycznych w warunkach wyładowania jarzeniowego. Inżynieria powierzchni, 2 (2002), 3-10. 11. Sobiecki J., Brojanowska A., Kazior J., Wierzchoń T.: The structure and corrosion resistance of sinters form 316Lsteel after plasma nitriding. Inżynieria Materiałowa, 5 (2006), 1232-1235. 12. Sobiecki J., Kazior J., Wierzchoń T.: Low temperature plasma nitriding of sintered austenitic steel. Inżynieria Materiałowa, 5 (2005), 434-436. 13. Trojanowski J., Senatorski J.: Opracowanie technologii azotowania jarzeniowego stali typu 316L. Sprawozdanie Nr 13.2.01.230. Instytutu Mechaniki
manufacturing - General principles - Terminology. 10. Pinto F. C., Souza Filho I. R., Sandim M. J. R., & Sandim H. R. Z.: Defects in parts manufactured by selective laser melting caused by δ-ferrite in reused 316Lsteel powder feedstock. Additive Manufacturing, 31, (2020), 100979. 11. SS 316L - 047: Powder for additive manufacturing. RENISHAW: apply innovation. United Kingdom: Renishaw, (2015). 12. Zhong C., Biermann T., Gasser A., Poprawe, G.: Experimental study of effects of main process parameters on porosity, track geometry, deposition rate, and powder efficiency for high