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primers 300F (5’ – CAA GTA CCG TGA GGG AAA GTT G – 3’) and ECD2 (5’ – CTT GGT CCG TGT TTC AAG ACG GG – 3’). Contiguous sequences were processed (assemblage, alignment, tree reconstruction) using Geneouis 8.1.6 (Trial Version). The two alignments (1237 bp) were identical. One of the new sequences was deposited in GenBank with accession number KT321869. The partial 28S rDNA sequences generated in the study were aligned with representatives of different families of the superfamily Paramphistomoidea Fischoeder, 1901 available in GenBank. Bayesian inference and Maximum

.A., TURNER D.H., ZUKER M. 1989: Improved predictions of secondary structures for RNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86: 7706-7710. JAIN S.L. 1952: Monogenea of Indian freshwater fishes. II. Thaparocleidus wallagonius n.g. & n. sp. (subfamily Tetraonchinae) from the gills of Wallagonia attu (BLOCH) from Lucknow. Indian Journal of Helminthology, 4: 43-48. JOVELIN R., JUSTINE J.L. 2001: Phylogenetic relationships within the polyopisthocotylean monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) inferred from partial 28S rDNA sequences

the world faunas and their evolution // Indian J. Helminthology . - 1973. - 25 , 26 . - P. 1-241. Justine J. L., Jovelin R., Neifar R. et al. Phylogenetic positions of the Bothitrematidae and Neocalceostomatidae (Monoopisthocotylean Monogeneans) inferred from 28S rDNA sequences // Comparative Parasitology. - 2002. - 69 , 1. - P. 20-25. Kimura M. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences // J. Molecular Evolution. - 1980. - 16 , 2. - P. 111-120. Lee S. U., Chun H. C., Huh S

was measured following Bush et al., (1997) . Prevalence is the number ( %) of hosts infected with one or more individuals of a particular parasite species (or taxonomic group) divided by the number of hosts examined for that parasite species. Information about the collections of specimens of Pleurogenoides species is presented in Table 1 . DNA from Pleurogenoide s species was extracted from two different individuals of both species using the DNeasy TM Tissue Kit (Qiagen, Germany), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 28S gene region of the rDNA was

-Bank under KT755457 accession number for L. attenuatus and KU507542 and KT755458 for L. danuvii from Poland and Ukraine, respectively. Subsequently three alignments were made: in first L. attenuatus sequence obtained here was aligned with D2-D3 28S rDNA sequence (GenBank accession: AY601572) provided by He et al . (2005) . In second L. danuvii sequences obtained in this study were compared, in third alignment these sequences were aligned with D3 28S rDNA sequences AM412364-66 provided by Barsi et al . (2007) Sequences were aligned using MUSCLE ( Edgar, 2004

, CABI Publishing, 833 pp. DOI: 10.1079/9780851992020.0000 S turhan , D. (1993): Beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii , on tomato in Cape Verde. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. , 42: 70 – 71 S ubbotin , S.A., R agsdale , E.J., M ullens , T., R oberts , P.A., M undo -O campo , M., B aldwin , J.G. (2008): A phylogenetic framework for root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda): Evidence from 18S and D2–D3 expansion segments of 28S ribosomal RNA genes and morphological characters. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 491–505. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.028 T

., 2012 ). Thus, DNA-based approaches including ribosomal DNA such as the 18S, D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS regions, and mitochondrial DNA have been employed for the molecular characterization and reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within Xiphinema ( Oliveira et al ., 2004 ; Ye et al ., 2004 ; He et al ., 2005 ; Lazarova et al ., 2006 ; Wu et al ., 2007 ; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez et al ., 2012 , 2013 ). Some species of the genus Xiphinema are distributed worldwide, whereas others have limited distribution ( Coomans, 1996 ; Coomans et al

Summary

Aphelenchoides fragariae (Ritzema Bos, 1890) Christie, 1932 was isolated from leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings proving that the source of infection was anemones plants. This is the first report to our best knowledge showing that the source of nematode infection of a woody plant could be a perennial plant. A. fragariae was identified by morphometric and molecular analyses. Morphological diagnosis based on the bending shape of the tail of males and pronounced apex and rostrum proved to be the most accurate reliable characteristic. On the opposite, the high variability of the mucron shape in female tails made the identification by microscopic analyses difficult. Identification of the species was confirmed by analysis of 28S rDNA sequences. The morphometric data of adults extracted from silver birch was compared with that of nematodes isolated from Anemone hupehensis (Lemoine) Lemoine. Males body length varied highly in samples collected from both host plant species.

Abstract

Identification of the nematode Xiphinema italiae relies mainly on time-consuming morphological and morphometrical studies. A polymerase chain reaction protocol has been used for the reliable and specific identification of X. italiae. Moreover, four independently evolving molecular markers (cox1- cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1; ITS2-second internal transcribed spacer; 18S gene and D2/D3 expansion segments of 28S gene) were amplified and sequenced in both directions.

Summary

During a survey on the occurrence of the plant parasitic nematodes of the family Longidoridae in Poland, 925 soil samples were taken. Longidorus distinctus was present in 10 (1.08 %) of these samples. In this Research Note we provide: 1) distribution map of these populations, 2) morphometric data, 3) sequence data for D2-D3 28S rDNA and (partial)18S-ITS1 -5.8S(partial) markers and 4) LdistFOR primer (5′-GGCTGTAAAGATATATGCGT-3’) effective in obtaining ITS1 sequence for the species. Morphometric similarities and dissimilarities with data on other published populations are discussed.