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: Romantismul [Romanticism] (1859 - 1898) . București: EdituraMuzicală. Cosma, V. (1958). Bibliografia materialului musical românesc din periodicele muzicale ale veacului al XIX-lea [Bibliography of Romanian musical materials in 19 th -century musical periodicals], vol. I-II. Bucureşti: typed. Bibl. Uniunii Compozitorilor. Cosma, V. (1989). Muzicieni din România: Lexicon biobibliografic [Romanian musicians. Bio-bibliographic lexicon], vol. I (A-C) . București: Editura Muzicală. Cosma, V. (2000). Muzicieni din România: Lexicon biobibliografic [Romanian musicians. Bio

Verlag; 1986. 12. Amsterdamski S. Między historią a metodą. Spory o racjonalność nauki. Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy; 1983. p. 32-4; 35-41. 13. Cohen F. Die zweite Erschaffung der Welt. Wie die modern Naturwissenschaft entstand, Frankfurt am Main - New York: Campus Verlag; 2010. p. 24-36, 143-157. 14. Mason S.F. Geschichte der Naturwissenschaft in den Entwicklung ihren Denkweisen. Stuttgart: Kröner Verlag; 1991. p. 178-248; 95-117. 15. Płonka-Syroka B. An overwiev of the Polish school of medical philosophy from the 19th century to today. J Pharm Pharmacol


The 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century mark the emergence, development and affirmation of the piano as a complex instrument that shall take, in turns, the role of soloist instrument, claiming and being able to reach the sound variety of the orchestra, that of partner in chamber music assemblies or that of orchestra member. The emergence, improvement and qualitative performance acquisition adventure of the piano represents a fascinating history about human creativity and ingenuity serving art, beauty, sound expressivity refinement and improvement.


The paper analyses the manner in which the education of children was done in the beginning of the 19th century and how this is revealed in the pages of “The Tenant of Wildfell Hall”, the second and also the final novel written by the English writer Anne Bronte, the youngest of the famous Bronte sisters. Despite enjoying enormous success after its publication in 1848, after its author’s death, Charlotte Bronte - Ann’s eldest sister - refused to republish it. She considered it to be too shocking as it dealt with themes like alcoholism, the ability of women to have paying jobs that enabled them to support not only themselves, but also their families, themes that were considered taboo or the “inhibited, polite, orderly, tender-minded, prudish and hypocritical” Victorian society [1]. We focus on the observations as well as on the subtle mentionings and allusions made in the novel with regard to some of the most important aspects of the Victorian Era education: the schooling of children, the differences between the education of boys and that of girls, the educational differences between the social classes.

REFERENCES Cannon, R. (2012). Opera. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chodkowski, A. (Ed.) (1995). Encyklopedia muzyki . Warszawa: PWN. Clark, M. (2002). The Quadrille as Embodied Musical Experience in 19th-Century Paris, The Journal of Musicology . Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 503–526. Dziębowska, E. (1971). O polskiej szkole narodowej. In: Z. Chechlińska (Ed.), Szkice okulturze muzycznej XIX wieku. Warszawa: PWN. Einstein, A. (1965). Muzyka w epoce romantyzmu. M. Jarocińska & S. Jarociński (Transl.). Warszawa: PWN. Hrčková, N. (Ed.), (2010). Dejiny hudby

, Population growth cycles in the Polish Carpathian Mountains during 19th and 20th centuries , Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej UJ, Krakow Sulimierski F., B. Chlebowski, W. Walewski, 1880-1885, Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich , vol. 1, Druk "Wieku", Warszawa Wagner R. E., 1938, Das Buch der Bielitz-Bialaer Chronika , hrsg. von R. E. Wagner, Poznań Zaremba M., J. Borowski, 2001, Mikrobiologia lekarska , Wyd. Lek. PZWL, Warszawa


The purpose of the article was to present, with regard to Łódź multinational and multi-religious contexts of the 19th and 20th centuries, the type, course, and meaning of widely understood school celebrations, in which children were the main actors. The intention of the author was to answer the key issue of this study: did children, who rehearsed for school celebrations and events and participated in them, play the role of the subject of the educational process or were they a kind of a tool, i.e. the object of the influence of the school, that is to say its owners (e.g. boards of charitable organizations or municipal or church authorities), education authorities, teachers, or carers. To what extent did the organisation of school events result from rituals of the educational institution concerned and to what extent was the need for this kind of “ceremonies” influenced by the local (social and political) environment?

The historical background of the paper is the time before the Great War, the years of 1914--1918, and Poland in the interwar period. Taking the historical and pedagogical aspects referred to above into account, the author tried to present the events with child participants held in institutions run by charitable organisations (the period until 1914); ceremonies related to the promotion of pupils in the first grades of municipal schools to next grades (the years of 1914-1918); and celebrations and ceremonies held in care institutions for girls and boys.

The research is based on archive materials, newspaper articles, and historical and current literature.

-Choińska née Mikorska (1849–1898), another female composer from the mid-19 th century associated with the literary circles. The wife of the well-known Jewish writer Teodor Jeske-Choiński, she simultaneously focused on music and literature; in 1884 she published a novel titled Muzykanci [ Musicians ]. Her vocal education took place abroad; later she studied music theory at Warsaw Music Institute, which included classes of harmony, counterpoint, and orchestration, providing her with a professional foundation for the profession of composer. Jeske-Choińska’s best known music


The paper analyses the image of the social classes existing in Romania in the second half of the 19th century as it emerges from the work of the English writer James William Ozanne, the first president of the Anglo-American Press Association in Paris, between 1882-1912. The Romanian society is seen through the eyes of a diplomat with a keen sense of observation, yet also subjective sometimes, who manages to create an accurate depiction of the society of a state which he did not consider to be among the first ranking ones. It is interesting to notice that he borrows “valuable information“ from other writers, especially Vaillant, Regnault and Obedenare, but, unlike other foreign travellers who wrote about the Romanians and their way of life, he is not ashamed to acknowledge this fact. J.W. Ozanne openly admits the fact that he liked the people among whom he had lived for three years, but his book is not a happy one. He did his duty of respecting the truth as much as possible, without entering into too many details, and the image of the social classes that he managed to create is one that enjoys the “right combination of light and shadows”.

References BROM, B. (2001). Historie obchodních a živnostenských komor na území českých zemí (od počátků až po jejich zrušení) (1850-1948) . Praha. Retrieved from GERŠLOVÁ, J., SEKANINA, M. (2003). Encyclopedia of the Czech Economic History of the 19th and the 20th Century in the Political and Social Circumstances. Prague: Libri. JAKUBEC, I. (2007a). Vytváření obchodnických elit se zvláštním zřetelem k pražské obchodní a živnostenské komoře. In ŠTAIF, Jiří Štaif (ed.), Moderní podnikatelské elity