The Cor Iesu amanti sacrum, a series of engravings made by Anton II Wierix around the year 1600, became one of the most important series of religious emblems from the 17th and 18th centuries. The engravings’ printed reception is well known: there are numerous graphical copies, as well as books written on the basis of the emblems, starting with the work by the French Jesuit Étienne Luzvic, entitled Le cœur devot throsne royal de Iesus pacifique Salomon, from 1626. The article discusses the handwritten reception of the series, which until now has remained virtually uninvestigated. The authors analyze five works of literature, preserved in Polish and Netherlandish 17th-century manuscripts and inspired by the engravings from the Cor Iesu amanti sacrum: Het herte Jesu by an anonymous Netherlandish protestant (a manuscript from Tilburg), Opofferingh van het herte aan den Bruijdegom Iesus Christus by the Netherlandish scientist and doctor Jan Swammerdam (a manuscript from Ghent), and three untitled Polish versions: a poetical collection by the Jesuit Mikołaj Mieleszko, dedicated to the Duchess Katarzyna Radziwiłł in 1657 (a manuscript from Saint-Petersburg) and two different works preserved in monastic libraries (manuscripts from Imbramowice and Stary Sącz).
On the fringes of post-Reformation Europe, church and state authorities faced problems in enforcing church attendance. In the Swedish kingdom, religious uniformity was seen as vital for the success of the state after the Lutheran confession had been established, and absences from church were punishable by law. The seventeenth century saw significant tightening of legislation relating to church absences and other breaches of the Sabbath, and severe punishments were introduced. Despite considerable deterrents, it was sometimes difficult to control local inhabitants: absence cases were regularly brought before the local courts in Eastern Finland, where authorities were hampered by a combination of geographical distance and a highly mobile population. In this article, popular church-going practices are studied with an approach inspired by historical anthropology. In popular practice church attendance was required only on the most important holy days of the year, whereas on Sundays and prayer days, work or leisure were considered socially acceptable pursuits. Explanations of nonattendance should not only make reference to trying conditions: in certain situations people would travel long distances to church, despite the obvious difficulties they faced. Popular religious traditions and old conceptions of sacred time also affected behaviour among peasants. The great holy days of the year formed a ritual cycle, the aim of which was the maintenance of good relations with the supernatural. For the success of oneself and one’s household, it was more important to follow the norms of popular culture than the orders of the authorities.
Guntis Gerhards, Elīna Pētersone-Gordina and Zita Krūmiņa
Derums, V. (1988). Baltijas sencilvçku slimîbas un tautas dziedniecîba [Ancient Baltic inhabitants: diseases and treatment]. Zinâne, Rîga. 233 pp. (in Latvian).
Dunsdorfs, E. (1962). Latvijas vçsture, 1600-1710 [History of Latvia 1600-1700]. Daugava, Stockholm. 588 pp. (in Latvian).
Gerhards, G. (2005). Ventspils 15.-17. gadsimta iedzîvotâju bioarheoloìiskâ izpçte [Bioarchaeological investigation of the 15th-17thcentury population of Ventspils]. Latvijas Vçstures Institûta Þurnâls, 3, 5-29 (in Latvian).
Hackett, C. J
The author discusses a phenomenon of putting the works of military cartography on medals cast in the 17th century. The analysis focused on a medal presented to Krzysztof Arciszewski (1592-1656) by the Dutch West India Company in 1637. The obverse of this medal features two cartographic images depicting the siege of the Arraial Velho do Bom Jesus fortress (1635) and the battle between Camarigibi and Porto Calvo (1636). They were patterned after two manuscript maps. The maps were made by Arciszewski and attached to a memorandum written and sent to the management of the West India Company on 13 June 1633. They were engraved and published in print only around 1644. The plan of the battle that took place on 18 January 1636 indicates that the engraver (author unknown) used not only the manuscript version but also the medal. The example of the medal minted in 1637 confirms the credibility of cartographic representations featured on numismatic items. It should, naturally, be borne in mind that such representations must have been simplified due to the very nature of the means. Nevertheless, should there be no proper manuscript pattern, such objects may be used successfully as valuable cartographic sources.
My article centres on the intricate intertwining of gender, sexuality, identity and writing in the first quarter of the 17th century, dealing with Aemilia Lanyer’s most famous work Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum (1611) a cornerstone in the construction of female readership, offering at the same time an example of a collaborative rather than competitive model for literary creation, advancing the plea for a female genealogy.
The historical story Book of Fate, published by Karel Sabina (1813-1877) in the magazine Květy (Flowers) in 1866, deals with censorship in Bohemia at the beginning of the 17th century. In the romantic tale, Karel Sabina has combined the stories of two printers, Sixt Palma Močidlansky (approximately 1569- 1617) and Ondřej Mizera Jarovsky (†1616), both of whom were known for various censorship scandals. In 1602, Palma was imprisoned and then expelled from Bohemia. The innocent Mizera was even executed in 1616 by Henyk of Valdštejn (1568-1623), the owner of the printing workshop at Dobrovice Castle. The article has revealed what sources Sabina may have used for his work, in which historical figures appear as well. It has even compared the fates of the writer Karel Sabina and the bookprinter Sixt Palma, authors of the 19th and 17th centuries.
Manifestations of periodontitis, the destructive form of periodontal disease affecting the alveolar bone, are often clearly recognizable in archaeological human remains. Analysis of this disease allows to obtain data not only about biological condition but also diet and nutrition of past populations. The objective of this paper was to asses periodontitis in the Polish urban population of Brześć Kujawski during Medieval – Modern transition (14th–17th centuries AD). An attempt was also made to explain the relationship between atrophy of alveolar bones and the type of diet. Lowering of alveolar crests was diagnosed based on measurements of the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar crest edge (CEJ– AC) distance and morphology of the alveolar edge. In studied population periodontitis affected 77.1% of individuals and 41.4% of all alveoli. Frequency, intensity and severity of the disease was higher in males and increased with the individual’s age. Severity of alveolar destruction was associated with dental calculus accumulation. It seems that a high prevalence of the disease may be, among others, result of carbohydrate-rich diet and fragmented food. Sex differences could be related to differences in diet (especially in protein intake) and hormone levels or lack of oral hygiene in part of the population.
This paper examines 17th-century descriptions of Algonquian and Iroquoian languages by French and British missionaries as well as their subsequent reinterpretations. Focusing on such representative studies as Paul Le Jeune’s (1592–1664) sketch of Montagnais, John Eliot’s (1604–1690) grammar of Massachusett, and the accounts of Huron by Jean de Brébeuf (1593–1649) and Gabriel Sagard-Théodat (c.1600–1650), I discuss their analysis of the sound systems, morphology, syntax, and lexicon. In addition, I examine the reception of early missionary accounts in European scholarship, focusing on the role they played in the shaping of the notion of ‘primitive’ languages and their speakers in the 18th and 19th centuries. I also discuss the impressionistic nature of evaluations of phonetic, lexical, and grammatical properties in terms of complexity and richness. Based on examples of the early accounts of the lexicon and structure of Algonquian and Iroquoian languages, I show that even though these accounts were preliminary in their character, they frequently provided detailed and insightful representations of unfamiliar languages. The reception and subsequent transmission of the linguistic examples they illustrated was however influenced by the changing theoretical and ideological context, resulting in interpretations that were often contradictory to those intended in the original descriptions.
The shaping of the Lutheran teaching profession and Lutheran families of teachers in the 16th and 17th centuries
The article deals with changes in the status of teachers and the shaping of Lutheran families of teachers in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Trenčín, Liptov and Orava districts of the superintendency. It describes the formation of the families and their background.
The article is dedicated to analysis of the content and the peculiarities of school education in Ukraine in view of disseminating the leading ideas of European humanistic pedagogy during the 16th-17th centuries. It has been noted that during the period of disseminating humanistic ideas the principles of Ukrainian education and Ukrainian school were forming in an active interaction with European culture and European education. Ukrainian school education is seen as a phenomenon that has accumulated the values of Western European humanistic culture, namely, respect for the individual, awareness of intellectual activity importance, the value of labour, understanding of the need for education and knowledge of languages. An active role in disseminating the pan-European models of education has been played by an intellectual environment, which was forming in the well known cultural and educational centers of Ukraine of the 16th-17th centuries, such as the Ostroh Culture and Education Center, the Lviv Brother School, the Kyiv Brother School, the Kyiv Collegium. Ukrainian intellectual elite, namely, university professors, teachers, students, have become the main carriers of education. The nature of the processes taking place in the educational space of Ukraine have been significantly influenced by the circumstances of religious life associated with the protection of the Orthodox Church before the onset of Catholicism. High standards of education, knowledge of the old classical and modern European languages were an important basis for the full-fledged spiritual development of the Ukrainian ethnic group. A retrospective consideration of the past reveals new meanings and imperatives in development of modern Ukrainian education, and the rich experience of Ukrainian teachers, collegium lecturers, professors of the first universities justify the necessary reasons for Ukrainian education entering into the European space.