The study examines possible water savings by replacing alfalfa with winter wheat in the Fergana Valley, located upstream of the Syrdarya River in Central Asia. Agricultural reforms since the 1990s have promoted this change in cropping patterns in the Central Asian states to enhance food security and social benefits. The water use of alfalfa, winter wheat/fallow, and winter wheat/green gram (double cropping) systems is compared for high-deficit, low-deficit, and full irrigation scenarios using hydrological modeling with the HYDRUS-1D software package. Modeling results indicate that replacing alfalfa with winter wheat in the Fergana Valley released significant water resources, mainly by reducing productive crop transpiration when abandoning alfalfa in favor of alternative cropping systems. However, the winter wheat/fallow cropping system caused high evaporation losses from fallow land after harvesting of winter wheat. Double cropping (i.e., the cultivation of green gram as a short duration summer crop after winter wheat harvesting) reduced evaporation losses, enhanced crop output and hence food security, while generating water savings that make more water available for other productive uses. Beyond water savings, this paper also discusses the economic and social gains that double cropping produces for the public within a broader developmental context.
In the present work, we define new type slant helices called (k,m)-type and we conclude that there are no (1,k) type (1 ≤ k ≤ 4) slant helices. Also we obtain conditions for different type slant helices.
The aim of the paper is to empirically estimate the growth-maximizing debt-to-GDP ratio in the case of Turkey. To calculate the growth-maximizing debt-to-GDP ratio FMOLS, DOLS, and CCR estimators are used for the period from 1960–2013. According to the empirical findings the growth-maximizing debt-to-GDP ratio varies between 34.3% and 38.7%. Based on a comparison of these ratios to current data (29.1% for 2018), Turkey has the capacity for additional borrowing to achieve a growth-maximizing debt-to-GDP ratio. If this additional borrowing capacity is used for public investment with a return greater than the interest cost of the additional debt economic growth will be maximized and public debt sustainability supported.
The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between government revenues and the economic growth of Nigeria. The study employs exploratory and ex-post facto research designs while using secondary form of data spanning from 1981 to 2018 collected from the Federal Inland Revenue Services (FIRS), National Bureau of Statistics and CBN statistical bulletin. The relationship is tested by using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression technique. The result reveals that federally received revenue and Value Added Tax (VAT) have a moderate positive relationship with the economic growth. The study provides evidence that there is a need for the government to formulate relevant revenue policies that will boost government income in order to have more favourable implication on the economy.
there has been rarely reported about the dielectric properties of xNaNbO 3 –BaTiO 3 when x is less than 0.01, in particular the critical concentration of 0.4 mol% to 0.5 mol%. The present work explores the dielectric properties of NaNbO 3 doped BaTiO 3 ceramics with different concentrations ranging from 0.30 mol% to 0.45 mol%, with a special emphasis on 0.40 mol% NaNbO 3 –BaTiO 3 ceramics, its preparation process, microstructure and dielectric properties. The XPS method was used to test the valence changes for the host elements and an appropriate mechanism was
ratings of wellness were correlated with the number of accelerations (40 h post-match - CI -0.29 – 1.07, p = 0.024, large; 64 h post-match - CI 0.40 – 0.86, p = 0.041, large) and the number of sprints (40 h post-match - CI -0.20 – 0.96, p = 0.047, large). CMJ performance did not significantly correlate with any match activity variables (all p > 0.05). Table 1 Correlations between measures of fatigue and performance variables measured during a match (CK = Creatine Kinase; VASMF = Visual Analogue Scale of Muscle Fatigue; Wellness = Perceived ratings of wellness
. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Zn content and annealing temperature on the optical constants of Cd 1−x Zn x Se thin films such as refractive index n, extinction coefficient k, optical band gap E g and optical dispersion parameters E o , E d . 2 Experimental work Cd 1−x Zn x Se (x = 0, 0.40, and 1) thin films were deposited on a glass substrate at room temperature using resistive thermal evaporation technique. After deposition the films were allowed to cool at room temperature. The as deposited films were then annealed at 400 °C in air for one