Dinko Rogulj, Marko Hauptfeld, Mojca Iskra, Vanda Zorko and Milena Strašek
Aganović I, Metelko Ž. Šećernabolest [Diabetes mellitus, in Croatian]. In: Vrhovac B, Francetić I, Jakšić B, Labar B. Vucelić B, editors. Interna medicina. 3 rd ed. Zagreb: Ljevak; 2008. p. 1244-64.
Tran HA. Extreme hyperkalemia. South Med J 2005;98:729-32.
Montoliu J, Revert L. Lethal hyperkalemia associated with severe hyperglycemia in diabetic patients with renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 1985;5:47-8.
Acker CG, Johnson PJ, Palevsky PM
Swaminathan Ganesh, Mala Dharmalingam and Sara Marcus
Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes with Iron Deficiency in Asian Indians
A close relationship exists between iron metabolism, diabetes and oxidative stress. Both diabetes and redox active iron are individually known to enhance oxidative stress. However, the role of iron deficiency and oxidative stress in diabetes is not clear; hence, the levels of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes with and without iron deficiency have been compared. Two groups of 30 patients each with diabetes were selected (one group with iron deficiency and the other group with normal iron levels) and compared with 30 normal healthy controls. The anthropometric parameters, fasting blood sugar, iron profile and oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde levels (index of lipid peroxidation) and serum uric acid levels (antioxidant)) were measured. While the diabetes group had significantly increased serum levels of ferritin (an acute phase reactant and antioxidant) in comparison with normal controls (P=0.040), the diabetic group with iron deficiency had decreased serum levels of iron (P =0.000), ferritin (P = 0.000) and uric acid (P = 0.006) and increased levels of malondialdehyde (P = 0.000) in comparison with diabetics without iron deficiency. This study shows an increase in oxidative stress in the diabetic group with iron deficiency together with reduction in antioxidant levels could further promote prooxidant levels and inflammation and in turn result in the development of complications in this high-risk Asian Indian population.
Zorana Slanovic-Kuzmanović, Ivan Kos and Ana-Marija Domijan
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a chronic, multi-component disease characterised by central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. Since MetS leads to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, development of certain cancers, and eventually to premature death, it is not surprising that it draws the attention of scientists around the world. The aetiopathology of MetS is complex and still not fully understood. This review focuses on the role of endocrine factors such as cortisol and insulin in the development of MetS. It also takes a look at some of the contributing lifestyle and genetic factors as well as at the current knowledge about its treatment.
Dragana Milutinović, Boris Golubović, Nina Brkić and Bela Prokeš
Professional Stress and Health among Critical Care Nurses in Serbia
The aim of this study was to identify and analyse professional stressors, evaluate the level of stress in nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICU), and assess the correlation between the perception of stress and psychological and somatic symptoms or diseases shown by nurses. The research, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out in the Intensive Care Units (ICU), in health centres in Serbia. The sample population encompassed 1000 nurses. Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS) was used as the research instrument. ENSS revealed a valid metric characteristic within our sample population. Nurses from ICUs rated situations involving physical and psychological working environments as the most stressful ones, whereas situations related to social working environment were described as less stressful; however, the differences in the perception of stressfulness of these environments were minor. Socio-demographic determinants of the participants (age, marital status and education level) significantly affected the perception of stress at work. Significant differences in the perception of stressfulness of particular stress factors were observed among nurses with respect to psychological and somatic symptoms (such as headache, insomnia, fatigue, despair, lower back pain, mood swings etc.) and certain diseases (such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus etc). In view of permanent escalation of professional stressors, creating a supportive working environment is essential for positive health outcomes, prevention of job-related diseases and better protection of already ill nurses.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease that results from a conjunction of several risk factors, both inherited and acquired. The younger the person, the more risk factors are required to cause the disease. Since 1937, when the term thrombophilia was coined by Nygaard and Brown, and 1965 when it was used for the first time by Egeberg, a substantial increase in the percentage of patients with VTE and underlying thrombophilia has been reported, particularly after the discovery of the most common thrombophilic mutations, FV Leiden and FII G20210A. Presence of thrombophilia could be detected in as many as 50% of all patients with VTE. Thrombophilia testing has increased lately not only in patients with thromboses but also for other indications, however, whether the results will help in the clinical management of the patients is still unclear. Thrombo philia testing is most commonly performed in young patients with VTE, patients with recurrent episodes of VTE or with thromboses at unusual sites and in persons with positive family history. Whether the presence of thrombophilia influences the clinical management of the patient remains controversial. Patients with VTE and the recognized risk factors such are surgery, trauma, immobilization, pregnancy and the puerperium are at very low risk for recurrence, but prediction of the recurrence of VTE based on the presence of thrombophilia has not been sufficiently explored. Presence of clinical risk factors should be integrated in the strategy of VTE risk assessment. Since many risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and smoking are common for both arterial and venous thromboses, it has been suggested that VTE should be considered as part of a pancardiovascular syndrome, along with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease and cerebrovascular disease. Positive family history for VTE in a first-degree relative increases the risk for VTE occurrence by 2-fold, regardless of the presence of inherited thrombophilia. Pregnancy-related risk of VTE is sixfold in creased compared to nonpregnant age-matched women. Women with thrombophilia have been shown to be at an increased risk not only of pregnancy-associated thromboembolism, but also of other vascular complications, including recurrent fetal loss and intrauterine fetal death. Risk for antepartal pregnancy-related VTE is considerably increased in obese women confined to bed for longer than one week, in women who underwent assisted reproduction, in multiple pregnancies, gestational diabetes and maternal age over 35 years. Postpartal risk factors differ, with eclampsia, emergency cesarian section and placenta praevia being the most important. Testing for thrombophilia generally does not alter the management of a patient with VTE, except for selected groups of patients. Women of fertile age with positive family history and presence of thrombophilia may benefit from thromboprophylaxis implementation during pregnancy, or can make the decision not to use oral contraceptives. In the future, the use of global coagulation tests that could detect a hypercoagulable state, along with other clinical risk factors, might improve VTE risk assessment and optimize the duration of treatment of VTE disease.