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transformation and retention in riparian buffer zones [Dissertation], Proefschrift Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, p. 197. Hillbricht-Ilkowska A., 1991, Funkcjonowanie obszarów młodoglacjalnych o szczególnych walorach przyrodniczych (The functioning of early post-glacial areas of particular natural value), [in:] Mazur S. (ed.) Ekologiczne podstawy gospodarowania środowiskiem przyrodniczym: wizje, problem, trudności (The ecological basis of environmental management: visions, problems, difficulties), Wyd. SGGW, Warszawa, 153-170 (in Polish). Hillbricht-Ilkowska A., 1997

. Climate change and ecotone boundaries: Insights from a celluar automata ecohydrology model in a Mediterranean catchment with topography controlled vegetation patterns. Advances in Water Resources, 73: 159-175. Carluer, N., Tournebize, J., Gouy, V., Margoum, C., Vincent, B. & Gril, J.J. 2011. Role of buffer zones in controlling pesticides fluxes to surfance waters. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 9: 21-26. Fortier, J., Truax, B., Gagnou, D. & Lambert, F. 2015. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stock in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots

Abstract

The paper presents analysis of the results of floristic studies carried out over 25 years in the Viešvilė State Strict Nature Reserve (VSSNR) and its buffer zone. The list of 703 vascular plant species including the data on their distribution and dynamics of abundance are provided. The native flora of the VSSNR includes 580 species, i.e. amounts to 47% of all native vascular plant species recorded in Lithuania. Since 1991, after the establishment of the Reserve, 15 species have become extinct and 30 have become endangered as a result of natural succession. Among 37 alien species recorded in the Reserve, four species are penetrating into natural habitats and threatening their existence. It was ascertained that about half of all species were recorded in meadows and glades of the forests, i.e. in the habitats, which occupy less than 1% of the whole territory. These are also habitats of most extinct and endangered species. Riparian and fontinal black alder woods are the most rich in vascular plant species among forest habitats.

Abstract

This study presents the species structure of macrofungi in different plant communities formed on fallows as a result of secondary succession. The mycological observations were carried out in 2012 and 2013 in the buffer zones of all landscape parks in the Łódzkie province, i.e. Bolimów LP, Spała LP, Sulejów LP, Warta-Widawka LP, Łódź Hills LP, Przedbórz LP and Załęcze LP. The botanical research identified fallows representing 7 types of plant communities. In total 46 macromycetes species were found on the fallows. The diversity of macrofungi depended on the type of plant community. The highest number of fungi species was found in the communities with an admixture of trees (Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula), while the lowest was collected on fallows almost completely covered by Cirsium arvense and Solidago canadensis. Considering the trophic classification of macrofungi found on fallows, most species were saprotrophic and mycorrhizal. Wood inhabiting saprotrophs were represented by only two species

Abstract

The research described in the paper utilized GIS methods and comparative cartography in order to analyze changes in forest cover in the period 1800-2011 in the Świętokrzyski National Park (76.26 km²) and its buffer zone (207.86 km²). The research was done for predefined elevation intervals, slope gradients, and genetic soil types. Source materials included historical maps as well as a digital elevation model. Changes in forest cover were noted in spatial and temporal terms and were usually linked to morphology and soil type. While the 19th century was characterized by intense deforestation, this process reversed starting in the early 20th century. Nevertheless, forest cover in the study area has still not returned to its state from 1800.

Abstract

In 2011–201 4 monitoring of the lesser spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina) breeding population was conducted in eight special protection areas in Slovakia. From a total of 272 successful breeding attempts by 1 49 breeding pairs during 4 breeding seasons 277 young birds were fledged. The average reproductive success ratio was thus 0.51 juv./pair present, 0.69 juv./breeding pair and 1 .37 juv./1 00 km2. In the surveyed period a total of 1 51 protection zones were established around the nests in 11 9 breeding territories, which provided protection for 1 7% of the breeding population of the lesser spotted eagle in Slovakia. By testing the effectiveness of protection zones it was determined that in nests with an established protection zone the probability of successful raising of young is higher in comparison with nests without such a zone. The probability that breeding will be successful in the nests of breeding pairs without a protection zone was 48.1% (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 37.4–59.0%), and in nests with a protection zone 64.8% (95% CIs: 59.8–69.6%). Among the five most frequent nest tree species used by A. pomarina in Slovakia for breeding are Picea abies 61 × (28.4%), Pinus sylvestris 45× (20.9%), Quercus sp. 36× (1 6.7%), Fagus sylvatica 25× (11 .6%) and Abies alba 1 8× (8.4%). Among the rarer nest tree species used are Larix decidua 1 2× (5.6%) and Alnus glutinosa 3× (1 .4%), while a further 11 species of nest trees did not achieve even 1%. The highest number of nest trees (n = 21 5), i.e. 34 nests (1 5.8%), was found in the altitude range of 401–450 m a.s.l. and 29 nests (1 3.5%) at 351–400 m a.s.l. Other altitude zones were all below the 1 0% mark. A total of 54% of nests found (11 6 nests) are located in the altitude zone of 301–600 m a.s.l., and 71 nests (33%) in the zone 600–900 m a.s.l. The lowest situated nest was at an altitude of 1 50 m and the highest at 950 m; the average was 595.01 m a.s.l. The highest number of nests (n = 209) were located on trees in a range 1 5.1–20.0 m above the ground (n = 92, 44%), while the lowest nest found was at a height of 5 m and the highest at 30 m above the ground.

Abstract

In the years 2009 and 2010, studies were carried out on Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium population established in the cultivated fields of the Wigry National Park and its buffer zone. Every year, 30 plants of the Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium were picked and collected from each of the three habitats: potato fields, winter and spring cereals. The following traits were examined: plant height, stem length to the first branching, number of internodes and their length, number of first-order branches and their length, number of leaves, number of spikelet-like inflorescences (spikelets) and their average length, the top inflorescence (spikelet) length, seed number per plant and 1000-seed weight. The analysis of the obtained results indicated large morphological variability of plants, which depended on the type of cultivated land. The most favourable conditions for weed growth and development occurred in potato fields, where Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium plants were the highest, most branched and productive. The opposite result was noticed in winter cereals, where Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium managed to produce the least seeds. Comparisons of the results of morphological measurements for Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium taken in the same sites during two growing seasons demonstrated relatively small variation of the analysed traits.

, alkaline lakes in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia, 584, 395−402. doi : 10.1007/s10750-007-0586-9. Dudley, N. & Stolton S. (2003). The importance of forest protected areas to drinking water. A research report for World Bank WWF Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Use. UK. Ebregt, A. & Greve P.D. (2000). Buffer zones and their management: policy and best practices for terrestrial ecosystems in developing countries. Wageningen: National Reference for Nature Management; International Agricultural Centre. Eloranta, P. (1999). Humic matter and water colour. In J

Abstract

Riparian woodlands significantly affect the water quality of streams and rivers. Thus, we examined whether the presence of woodlands in riparian buffer zones also impacts the thermal characteristics of lowland streams during the summer. Water temperature data were recorded with digital temperature loggers located in eight quasi-natural sites across the Garwolin Plain in central Poland. The mean, maximum, minimum, and mean daily range parameters were calculated for the whole study period from July to September 2017 with a 30 min. resolution. The percentage of woodlands in the catchment area and buffer zone along the streams was estimated based on satellite images from the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 missions. The Random Forest method was used in the classification process with an accuracy of 96%. The similarity of measurement sites in terms of water temperature was determined using cluster analysis (Ward method), while a Spearman correlation coefficient was applied to compare thermal parameters with the percentage of woodland areas.

The results indicate that water temperature patterns across the measurement sites varied, with mean temperatures ranging from 14.4°C in site T8 to 16.3°C in site T1. Furthermore, the correlation analysis confirmed our hypothesis that the presence of woodland areas does not significantly alter the thermal parameters of lowland streams. Moreover, the cluster analysis showed that sites with significantly different percentages of woodland areas were closely linked due to the similar distributions of water temperature values. However, it must be emphasised that the lack of riparian woodlands in buffer zones does not exclude the presence of shade associated with shrubs and grasses, as well as aquatic plants. In consequence, more advanced indicators of riparian shade, such as vegetation mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or hemispherical photography, should be used for small lowland streams.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of floristic and phytosociological research conducted during growing season 2011 on a copper mine heap Richtárová, near the village Staré Hory situated in buffer zone of the Low Tatras National Park. In total, we found 147 taxa of vascular plants. The dominant plant species of the mine heap is Agrostis capillaris, which sometimes forms relatively continuous cover, and other species growing in small islands of plants tolerant to specific environmental conditions, especially Silene dioica, Acetosella vulgaris, Arabidopsis arenosa. We sampled 8 phytosociological relevés. Localities of relevés were selected considering variability of plant communities on the all mine heap.