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Nataša Janjić, Darko Kapor, Dragan Doder and Igor Savić

Introduction This research was initiated in order to obtain an analytical expression providing a numerical quantification of the time effect of the influence of the wind and resistance of the medium on the final time of the 100 m run, although the International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) is not officially recognizing such quantification yet. The interest for such mathematical models dates back to the beginning of the 20 th century. It begins with the pioneering works of Meade (1916) , Hill (1925, 1928) , after whom there comes Keller (1974

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Natasa Janjic, Darko Kapor, Dragan Doder, Aleksandar Petrovic and Radoslava Doder

Introduction The research into the effects and contribution of the wind on the change of sprinter’s velocity in a 100 m run has resulted in numerous scientific publications over the last 40 years ( Dapena and Feltner, 1987 ; Davies, 1980 ; Linthorne, 1994 ; Mureika, 2003 ; Ward-Smith, 1999 ). This research was primarily directed towards the analysis and formulation of a mathematical model which would describe the influence of air resistance as a medium in the ground layers of the Earth’s atmosphere, and the effect of wind resistance in track sprinting

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S. Wolf and D. Saupe

(2-4), 95-110. Dahmen, T., & Saupe, D. (2014). Optimal pacing strategy for a race of two competing cyclists. Journal of science and cycling, 3(2), 12. Dahmen, T., Wolf, S., & Saupe, D. (2012). Applications of mathematical models of road cycling. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 45(2), 804-809. Gordon, S. (2005). Optimising distribution of power during a cycling time trial. Sports Engineering, 8(2), 81-90. Kyle, C. R. (1979). Reduction of wind resistance and power output of racing cyclists and runners travelling in

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Beatriz Bachero-Mena, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Juan Manuel Yáñez-García, Ricardo Mora-Custodio and Juan José González-Badillo

-distance track running events have also been widely investigated ( Hanon and Thomas, 2011 ; James et al., 2007 ). However, other possible determinant factors related to the 800 m performance such as strength, power, and sprinting capacities have received less scientific attention ( Hudgins et al., 2013 ). Research has shown a clear relationship between sprinting, strength and jumping performance in athletes. However, most of these investigations have focused their analysis on very short running distances (i.e., 50 and 100 m) ( Loturco et al., 2015a , 2015b ; Seitz et al

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Ernest Baiget, Francisco Corbi, Juan Pedro Fuentes and Jaime Fernández-Fernández

, elbow, wrist and hand) (Bonato et al., 2014; Eygendaal et al., 2007 ). Competitive players should train physical aspects like strength, speed, power, flexibility, local muscular endurance and muscular balance, which could potentially reduce the risk of injury ( Kovacs and Ellenbecker, 2011b ; Reid and Schneiker, 2008 ). Specifically, strength training has become vital in contemporary tennis as the velocity and power deployed in the game continue to increase ( Abrams et al., 2011; Cardoso Marques, 2005 ). Strength training programs involving different methods (e

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Yuri Koryak

muscle power of triceps surae in humans. J Appl Physiol, 1983. 55: 191-195 Delwaide PJ. Human monosynaptic reflexes and presynaptic inhibition. An interpretation of spastic hyperreflexia. In: New Dev Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol (ed. Desmedt J. E.). Karger, Basel. 1973. 3: 508-522 Duchateau J., Hainaut K. Electrical and mechanical changes in immobilized human muscle. J Appl Physiol, 1987. 62: 2168-2173 Duchateau J, Hainaut K. Effects of immobilization on contractile properties, recruiment

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Yasuhiro Yuasa, Toshiyuki Kurihara and Tadao Isaka

dorsiflexed position (using TPF) is meaningful for the evaluation of the ability to change direction in athletes. As described above, the ability to change direction was significantly correlated with TPF, but not with TFS. These findings support our hypothesis that TPF is a better indicator of the ability to change direction than TFS. The dorsiflexion movement of the MPJ causes the plantar fascia to wind around the metatarsal heads, which is known as the “windlass mechanism” ( Kappel-Bargas et al., 1998 ). Toe muscular strength induces the maximal force because the truss

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Marta Marcos-Serrano, Guillermo Olcina, Carmen Crespo, Darrell Brooks and Rafael Timon

distance training and a minimum of 15 hours of training per week (age: 36.00 ± 1.27 years; body height: 179.29 ± 10.77 cm; body mass: 74.50 ± 1.04 kg; fat mass: 9.02 ± 1.04%; muscular mass: 49.41 ± 1.27%). The experiment was performed during the European Ironman Championship held in Frankfurt (Germany) in 2012. All participants completed the Ironman race with times ranging from 09:08:15 (hh:mm:ss) to 11:40:10. Weather conditions during the race were as follows: average temperature: 21 o C (range 15-27), humidity: 63% (range 19-94), wind speed: 8 km/h, rain 1 mm

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Krzysztof Przednowek, Janusz Iskra, Krzysztof Wiktorowicz, Tomasz Krzeszowski and Adam Maszczyk

a variety of training loads, which are often radically different in their structure. The set of exercises for hurdlers running the 400 m includes typical exercises for sprinters (100-400 m), 110 m hurdlers, middle distance runners (800 m) and even long jumpers and triple jumpers. Hurdling research mainly concerns kinematics ( Chow, 1998 ), physiology and biochemical variables ( Kłapcińska et al., 2001 ; Ward-Smith, 1997 ) and the impact of external factors (e.g. wind) on performance ( Quinn, 2010 ). Planning training loads is rarely discussed in the context of

Open access

Mark L. Latash

nature. On the other hand, as emphasized in the opening section, they are active: this means that behavior of a living object cannot be predicted given its initial state (at least given our current ability to specify such a state) and external forces. Indeed, natural inanimate objects do not roll uphill, swim against the current and fly against the wind, while animals have little problems with such tasks and behaviors. I see the main challenges of motor control in the formulation of unknown laws of nature that define active movements performed by living systems. Of