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Andrzej Araźny, Krzysztof Migała, Sebastian Sikora and Tomasz Budzik

References Araźny A. 1999. Differentiation of air temperature in the summer season 1998 on the Waldemar Glacier and on the Kaffiøyra Plain (Spitsbergen). In: J. Repelewska-Pękalowa (ed.) Polish Polar Studies , 26 th International Polar Symposium, Lublin: 25-35. Araźny A. 2003. Variability of cooling power of the air in Hornsund (SW Spitsbergen) in the period 1979-2000. Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis 2542, Studia Geograficzne 75: 447-461. Araźny A. 2006. Variability of

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Adriana Albuquerque Pedrosa, Vanda Claudino-Sales, IItabaraci Nazareno Cavalcante and Alexandre Medeiros Carvalho

. IV Brazilian Symposium on Geodesy Science and Technology of Information), Recife, SBG. Carvalho, A.M. 2003. Morfodinâmica costeira entre Cumbuco e Matões – costa noroeste do Estado do Ceará. Enfâse nos processos eólicos. (Coastal morphodynamics between Cumbuco and Matões - northwest coast of the State of Ceará. Focus on wind processes) (Unpublished Doctorate Thesis). Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. Carvalho, A.M., Claudino-Sales, V. 2016. The wind transport contribution in the process of shoreline evolution. Mercator 15, 105–115. DOI: 10.4215/rm

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Gábor Barton

Management 90, 102–2117. DOI: doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.09.012 Sîntimbrean, A., Bedelean, H. 2002, Roşia. Montană - Alburnus Maior. Cetatea de scaun a aurului românesc, Ed. Altip, Alba. Iulia. Téglás G. 1888. Ampelum, mint Dacia aranybányászatának hatósági központja. Ref. Koll. Kolozsvár, 22. Tøttrup, C., 2014. EU-DEM Statistical Validation Report, DHI GRAS c/o Geocenter Denmark. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/gisco/geodata/reference-data/digital-elevation-model [Accessed: June, 2015]. Wolsink, M., 2007, Wind power implementation: The nature

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Paweł Rutkiewicz and Daniel Gawior

References Bolewski A., Manecki A. (1993) Particulary mineralogy. (Mineralogia szczegółowa). Polska Agencja Ekologiczna, Warszawa, 289-290 (in Polish). Brocard G.Y., van der Beek P.A., Bourlès D.L., Siame L.L., Mugnier J.L. (2003) Long-term fluvial incision rates and postglacial river relaxation time in the French Western Alps from 10 Be dating of alluvial terraces with assessment of inheritance, soil development and wind ablation effects. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 209, 197-214. Buliński M. (2005) Występowanie Juncus

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Yuen-Yeung Tse and Sheng-Hua Li

the lake is important in predicting future hydrological changes, as well as managing water resources in the region. Fig. 1 Map of northern Xinjiang showing the major water systems, including the Manas Lake west of the Gurbantunggut Desert. Inset map shows the northern Xinjiang area (in dotted rectangle) and the present wind systems in Asia ( Herzschuh, 2006 ). Fig. 2 Google Earth image showing the Manas Lake area and two NE-trending faults. Sampling locations for this study (red dots) and for previous studies by Fan et al. (2012) and

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Aiko Shimada, Masashi Takada and Shin Toyoda

Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Based on the results from these irradiated samples, all samples were irradiated to a dose of 2.5 kGy at a dose rate of 100 Gy/h to obtain the dose-saturated signal intensities. ESR measurement ESR measurements were conducted using a JES-X320 X-band spectrometer (JEOL RESONANCE Inc.) with the Liquid Helium Variable Temperature System (ES-CT470). The Al and Ti-Li center signals from the quartz samples were measured at 77 K (–196°C) using a microwave power of 5 mW, a sweep time of 2 min, a time constant of 0.03 s, an amplitude of field

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Barbara Sensuła, Sławomir Wilczyński, Laurence Monin, Mohammed Allan, Anna Pazdur and Nathalie Fagel

of studies have investigated: the rate of trees with different degrees of growth reduction to the diameter and height ( Kienast, 1985 ; Schweingruber, 1986 ; Danek, 2007 ; Elling et al ., 2009 ; Malik et al ., 2012 ; Crecente-Campo et al ., 2010 ), differences in similarity in radial growth response of trees ( Wilczynski, 2006 ). Scientific literature reviews have shown that, the size of reduction also depends on the distance from the source of pollution, directions prevailing winds and area orography ( Krąpiec and Szychowska Krąpiec, 2001 ; Juknys et al

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Li Qin, Yujiang Yuan, Ruibo Zhang, Wenshou Wei, Shulong Yu, Ziang Fan, Feng Chen, Tongwen Zhang and Huaming Shang

1. Introduction Mountain snow cover is an important water source for arid areas. However, large amounts of snow can lead to destructive avalanches, floods, traffic interruptions, or even the collapse of buildings ( Marty and Blanchet, 2012 ). The Tianshan Mountains comprise the largest mountain range in arid Central Asia, which is called the “wet island” of Central Asia. The climate of the Tianshan Mountains is dominated by westerly winds and it plays an important role in global climate change research ( Huang et al., 2013 ). It is vital to understand

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Barbara Sensuła and Sławomir Wilczyński

pollution on trees can be varied in space and depends on the habitat conditions and distance from the source of pollution, directions of prevailing winds ( Wilczyński, 2006 ; Danek, 2007 ; Elling et al ., 2009 ; Malik et al ., 2012 ). The trees, growing under stress of the pollutants, reduce their radial growth and height growth ( Kienast, 1985 , Schweingruber, 1986 ; Krąpiec and Szychowska-Krapiec, 2001 ; Danek, 2007 ; Elling et al ., 2009 ; Malik et al ., 2012 ; Crecente-Campo et al ., 2010 ). Also the differences in the similarity of radial growth

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Lupeng Yu, Ping An and Zhongping Lai

Summer Monsoon ( Yu and Lai, 2014 ), e.g. the mean precipitations of the Xiariha Town, Chahan Us Town, Xiangride Town and Nuomuhong Town in the eastern QB ( Fig. 1B ) was 240.8 mm, 180.5 mm, 166.8 mm and 37.9 mm, respectively, and that of the central and western QB is even lower ( Chorographical Committee of Dulan County, 2001 ). However, annual mean evaporation of the central basin is as high as 3000–3200 mm. Due to the arid climate and strong wind from western and northwestern direction, the landforms are mainly composed of wind-erosion yardangs, salt lake playas and