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Tai-Dong Nguyen and Manh-Tung Ho

whole of Confucianism is autocratic could be erroneous. Depending on the classifications and approaches, scholars will have different attitudes when assessing the relationship between Confucianism and democracy. Francis Fukuyama divided Confucian thoughts into two categories: political Confucianism and Confucian personal ethics. In fact, Francis Fukuyama’s classification is inherited from Tu Weiming (1984) , as cited by Fukuyama (1995, 26). Political Confucianism emphasizes imperial and gentry power, which together define a ruling social hierarchy as the upper

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Gert Pickel and Cemal Öztürk

2006). Our argument rests upon the assumption that the individual-level determinants of Islamophobia are nearby the same across European societies. Furthermore, the importance of the current political context in Eastern Europe cannot be overemphasized. Nationalist governments and politicians in Eastern Europe – both government representatives and opposition candidates – exploit anti-Muslim discourses to legitimize their claim to power. The political and public discourses (in combination with Muslims, predominantly negative image in the media) are additional reasons