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J. C. Weber, C. Sotelo Montes, J. Cornelius and J. Ugarte
Guazuma crinita is an important timber tree with a rotation age of 6–12 years in the Peruvian Amazon. A provenance/progeny test containing 200 families from seven locations (provenances) in the Aguaytía watershed of Peru was established in three zones in the Aguaytía watershed that differ in mean annual rainfall and soil fertility. Farmers managed the replications as plantations. Replications were divided into two groups at 24 months: faster- and slower-growing plantations. The faster-growing plantations were thinned at 32 months. The objectives of this paper are to determine if genetic variation in growth traits (tree height, stem diameter) is relatively greater in the faster-growing plantations, and if there are significant differences in tree mortality and stem bifurcations among provenances and families at 24, 36 and 48 months. Variation due to provenances and families and heritability of growth traits were consistently greater in the faster-growing plantations. At 48 months, heritability of growth traits was about twice as large in the faster- than in the slower-growing plantations. There were no significant interactions between zones and either provenances or families. Tree mortality and stem bifurcations in the faster-growing plantations generally did not differ significantly among families, but did differ significantly among provenances. Based on these results and considering its rotation age, we recommend that G. crinita families/trees could be selected at 48 months in the faster-growing plantations, the plantations could be transformed into seed orchards and the seed could be used for reforestation throughout the Aguaytía watershed. Results are compared with other tropical hardwoods.
John C. Weber, Carmen Sotelo Montes, Julio Ugarte and Tony Simons
A low-intensity selection strategy was recommended for timber trees in the Peruvian Amazon to maintain genetic variation on farms and produce modest gains in tree growth. The effectiveness of this strategy was evaluated using Calycophyllum spruceanum. Farmers selected 66 mother trees of different ages on farms in seven locations (~20% of all trees in the locations) in one watershed, based on a visual assessment of growth, form and external disease symptoms. Another 66 mother trees were chosen at random. Tree height, stem diameter, stem bifurcations and mortality of progeny of the selected and random groups of mother trees were evaluated at 15, 26 and 38 months in a provenance/progeny test located on farms in the same watershed. Height was significantly greater (10%) in the selected group at 15 months, but it did not differ significantly between the selected and random groups at 26 and 38 months. There were no significant differences in diameter, bifurcations and mortality between the groups. There was significant variation in height and diameter at all measurement ages due to families, and results suggested that variation in bifurcations and mortality due to families was also significant. Based on approximate 95% confidence
intervals, family variances in height and diameter did not differ significantly between the selected and random groups at any measurement age, but evaluations should continue to confirm these tentative conclusions. Some practical implications for tree improvement programs are discussed.