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Abdul-Rahman Dirisu, John Ovie Olomukoro and Ifeanyi Maxwell Ezenwa

Abstract

This study assessed the physico-chemical status of sediments in the Agbede Wetlands with the aim to create a reference archive for the Edo North catchment and to further identify the characteristics mostly influenced by the natural and anthropogenic activities going on at the watershed. Nutrients, zinc, nickel and lead were identified to be mostly of anthropogenic origin, while alkali metals and alkaline earth metals were from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The clustering of stations 1 and 4 indicates that the sediment quality in the lentic systems was not completely excluded from the lotic system, suggesting that principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) techniques are invaluable tools for identifying factors influencing the sediment quality. The mean values of the particle size distribution were in the following order across the ecosystems: sand (61.86–80.53%) > silt (9.75–30.34%) > clay (7.83–13.89%). The contamination of the water bodies was primarily derived from agricultural run-offs and through geochemical weathering of the top soils. Therefore, our analysis indicates that the concentrations of cations, anions and nutrients in the sediments of the lotic and lentic ecosystems in Agbede Wetlands are not at an alarming level.

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Tomasz Salamon and Tomasz Zieliński

Unusual development of sandur sedimentary succession, an example from the Pleistocene of S Poland

An atypical lithological development of outwash deposits in the Carpathians Foreland (S Poland) shows lower and middle parts of the sedimentary succession that are characterized by sinuous palaeochannels. This channel facies consists of laterally accreted sands derived from side bars. The sedimentary environment was a proglacial system of anabranching channels, presumably of anastomosed type. The outwash channel pattern was most probably controlled by the raising base level of the fluvial system. Both proglacial and extraglacial waters were dammed by a sandur within a small upland valley. Aggradation and progradation of the glaciofluvial deposits resulted in progressive rising of the dammed lake level. The low hydraulic gradient of the outwash streams resulted in a sinuous planform as well as a low-energy style of deposition. Afterwards, the rising lake water was drained off through a low watershed and the entire valley became filled with outwash sediments. The bedrock morphology thus became buried and a typical unconfined sandur with a braided channel network developed during the last phase of the glaciomarginal sedimentation (upper part of the sedimentary succession under study).

Open access

Katharina Gröbner, Wolfgang Gadermayr, Giorgio Höfer-Öllinger, Harald Huemer and Christoph Spötl

Abstract

The Leoganger Steinberge are a heavily karstified massif largely composed of Dachstein dolomite and limestone hosting the deepest through-trip cave in the world, Lamprechtsofen, whose frontal parts are developed as a show cave. Many parts of this 60 km-long and 1724 m-deep system are hydrologically active. 1.5 km behind the lower cave entrance Grüntopf stream and Kneippklamm stream merge to form the main cave stream. Another underground stream, Stainerhallen stream, flows through the eponymous hall of the show cave. Since 2007 water temperature, electrical conductivity and water level have been monitored in the Grüntopf and Kneippklamm stream. Water temperature and water level in the Stainerhallen and main cave stream have been measured since 2016.

The long-term dataset (2013–2017) shows that the water temperature of the cave streams (Grüntopf stream: 3.7–5.2°C; Kneippklamm stream: 5.1–5.9°C) is largely invariant, but the electrical conductivity varies strongly (Grüntopf stream: 107–210 µS/cm; Kneippklamm stream: 131–248 µS/cm) in response to snowmelt and precipitation events. The event water of the Kneippklamm stream is characterized by a low electrical conductivity and is then followed by slightly warmer and higher mineralized water derived from the phreatic zone. This dual flow pattern also explains the asymmetrical changes of the water level during snowmelt: the fast event water flows directly through vadose pathways to the measurement site, whereas the hydraulic (phreatic) response is delayed. The Grüntopf stream reacts to precipitation and snowmelt events by changes in the karst-water table, which can be explained by a piston flow-model. The Kneippklamm stream reveals evidence of a lifter system.

The altitude of the catchments was calculated using δ18O values of water samples from the underground streams and from surface precipitation. The Grüntopf stream shows the highest mean catchment (2280 m a.s.l.), which is in agreement with its daily fluctuations of the water level until August caused by long-lasting snowmelt. The Stainerhallen stream has the lowest catchment (average 1400 m a.s.l.). The catchments of the other two streams are at intermediate elevations (1770–1920 m a.s.l.). The integration of the catchment analyses and observations from tracer tests conducted in the 1970s showed that the latter reflected only one aspect of the karst water regime in this massif. During times of high recharge the water level rises, new flow paths are activated and the karst watershed shifts.

Open access

Anna Sieczka, Filip Bujakowski and Eugeniusz Koda

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Piotr M.J. Kaczmarek

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Izabela Chlost and Roman Cieśliński

117, 16–32. Lidzbarski, M., 2004. Operat hydrogeologiczny. Plan Ochrony Słowińskiego Parku Narodowego [ The hydrological frame. Protection plan of the Slowinski National Park ]. Smołdzino. McPhillips, L.E., Groffman, P.M., Goodale, Ch.L. & Walter, M.T., 2015. Hydrologic and biogeochemical drivers of riparian denitrification in an agricultural watershed. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 226, 169. Mitsch, W.J. & Day, Jr.J.W., 2006. Restoration of wetlands in the Mississippi–Ohio–Missouri (MOM) River Basin: Experience and needed research. Ecological

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Renata Graf and Jan Przybyłek

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Georg Trost, Jörg Robl, Sylke Hilberg, Christoph Hauzenberger, Rudolf Schmidt and Walter Goessler

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Māris Nartišs and Edyta Kalińska-Nartiša

in Quaternary Science . Elsevier, Amsterdam, 221–229. Zhang, P., Song, C., Yang, Y., Gao, H., Zhang, H., Liu, W.M., Pan, M.H., Liu, P., Hu, S.H. & Xia, W.M., 2008. The significance and establishment of discriminant function with grain size of stable lacustrine sediment and eolian loess. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 26, 501–507. Zhang, X., Li, Z., Li, P., Cheng, S., Zhang, Y., Tang, S. & Wang, T., 2015. A model to study the grain size components of the sediment deposited in aeolian – fluvial interplay erosion watershed. Sedimentary Geology 330, 132

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Dominik Pawłowski, Daniel Okupny, Wojciech Włodarski and Tomasz Zieliński

. Simulating Holocene carbon accumulation in a western Siberian watershed mire using a three-dimensional dynamic modeling approach. Water Resources Research 42, W12413. Borren, W. & Bleuten, W., 2014. Carbon flux changes after draining part of the bakchar bog: a 3-d dynamic modeling approach. [In:] A.A. Titlyanowa & M.I. Dergacheva (Eds): West Siberian peatlands and carbon cycle: past and present. Proceedings of Fourth International Field Symposium, Novosibirsk, Russia, 138. Bos, I.J., Busschers, F.S. & Hoek, W.Z., 2012. Organic