method for the detection and enumeration of presumptive Escherichia coli – Most probable number technique. 2006, 1–18.
10. Jakobsen L., Garneau P., Kurbasic A., Bruant G., Stegger M., Harel J., Jensen K.S., Brousseau R., Hammerum A.M., Frimodt-Møller N.: Microarray-based detection of extended virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles in phylogroup B2 Escherichia coli of human, meat, and animal origin. J Med Microbiol 2011, 60, 1502–1511.
11. Johnson T.J., Kariyawasam S., Wannemuehler Y., Mangiamele P., Johnson S.J., Doetkott C., Nolan L
1. Andrzejewska M., Klawe J.J., Szczepańska B., Śpica D.: Occurrence of virulencegenes among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from domestic animals and children. Polish J Vet Sci 2011, 2 , 207-211.
2. Bang D.D., Scheutz F., Ahrens P., Pedersen K., Blom J., Madsen M.: Prevalence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes and CDT production in Campylobacter spp. isolated from Danish broilers. J Med Microbiol 2001, 50 , 1087-1094.
3. Carvalho A.C., Ruiz-Palacios G
Maria Rodica Gurău, Hasan Majid Hameed, Mihaela Cristiana Popp, Marius Valer Campeanu and Doina Daneș
Awwad, E., K. Adwan, M. Farraj, T. Essawi, I. Rumi, A. Manasra, S. Baraitareanu, M. R. Gurau and D. Danes. 2015. Cell Envelope VirulenceGenes among Field Strains of Brucella melitensis Isolated in West Bank Part of Palestine. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia. 6: 281-286.
Akram N., H. Mojtaba, A. Azam, A. Masoud and H. Najmeh 2017. ʺDistribution of pathogenicity island markers and virulence factors in new phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolatesʺ. Folia Microbiologica, 63
(also facilitating attachment of APEC to extraintestinal tracts and assisting penetration of bacteria into the tissues), toxins (protecting APEC from lysosomes), siderophores (chelating iron), and protectins (inhibiting the classical pathway of complement activity), which help the bacterial infection to become established and augment the bacterium’s resistance to the host’s immune defences. Epidemic data show that human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains and APEC often carry similar virulencegenes, suggesting the zoonotic importance of APEC strains
Esraa A. Elshafiee, Sara M. Nader, Sohad M. Dorgham and Dalia A. Hamza
out of 50 (80%)
Livestock drinking water
All P. aeruginosa isolates were subjected to an antibiotic disc diffusion assay with carbapenem-group antibiotics ( Table 2 ). We further characterised these isolates for the presence of the β-lactam resistance genes bla KPC , bla OXA-48 , and bla NDM , and the virulence of the toxA gene ( Table 2 ). We found that 60% and 59% of animal isolates (buffalo and cattle), 67% of drinking water isolates, and 70% of human
haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) ( 26 ). The clinical symptoms of PED are diarrhoea, vomiting, and dehydration which result in very high mortality among suckling piglets and large economic losses ( 5 , 8 , 21 ). Various factors influence the clinical signs of PED, mainly the age of the animals, the herd’s immune status, and the virulence of the strain ( 18 ). Multiple PEDV strains are circulating on different pig farms around the world and they differ in virulence.
PED was observed for the first time in 1971 in the United
Ewa Paździor, Agnieszka Pękala-Safińska and Dariusz Wasyl
. Differentiation of Shewanella putrefaciens and Shewanella alga on the basis of whole-cell protein profiles, ribotyping, phenotypic characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis Appl Environ Microbiol 1997 63 2189 2199
29 Wang X.H., Oon H.L., Ho G.W., Wong W.S., Lim T.M., Leung K.Y.: Internalization and cytotoxicity are important virulence mechanisms in Vibrio-fish epithelial cell interactions. Microbiology 1998, 144, 2987–3002. 9846734 10.1099/00221287-144-11-2987
Wang X.H. Oon H.L. Ho G.W. Wong W.S. Lim T.M. Leung K
Sandra Mojsova, Kiril Krstevski, Igor Dzadzovski, Zagorka Popova and Pavle Sekulovski
enterocin EJ97 production by Enterococcus faecalis EJ97 are located on a conjugative plasmid. Appl Environ Microbiol. 62, 1633-1641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.3.1633-1641.2003 PMCid:PMC150074
19. Vankerckhoven, V., Van Autgaerden, T., Vael, C., Lammens, C., Chapelle, S., Rossi, R., Jabes, D., Goossens, H. (2004). Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of asa1, gelE, cylA, esp and hyl genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of Enterococcus faecium. J Clin Microbiol. 42, 4473-4479. http