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11. Johnson T.J., Kariyawasam S., Wannemuehler Y., Mangiamele P., Johnson S.J., Doetkott C., Nolan L
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(also facilitating attachment of APEC to extraintestinal tracts and assisting penetration of bacteria into the tissues), toxins (protecting APEC from lysosomes), siderophores (chelating iron), and protectins (inhibiting the classical pathway of complement activity), which help the bacterial infection to become established and augment the bacterium’s resistance to the host’s immune defences. Epidemic data show that human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains and APEC often carry similar virulencegenes, suggesting the zoonotic importance of APEC strains
Esraa A. Elshafiee, Sara M. Nader, Sohad M. Dorgham and Dalia A. Hamza
out of 50 (80%)
Livestock drinking water
All P. aeruginosa isolates were subjected to an antibiotic disc diffusion assay with carbapenem-group antibiotics ( Table 2 ). We further characterised these isolates for the presence of the β-lactam resistance genes bla KPC , bla OXA-48 , and bla NDM , and the virulence of the toxA gene ( Table 2 ). We found that 60% and 59% of animal isolates (buffalo and cattle), 67% of drinking water isolates, and 70% of human
Š. Bursová, D. Nečasová, K. Dorotíková, L. Necidová and L. Vorlová
potential virulence factors by veterinary isolates of Bacillus species associated with non-gastrointestinal infections. App. Environ. Microbiol. , 69, 4, 2372—2376. DOI: 10.1128/aem.69.4.2372-2376.2003.
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19. Seong, S. J., Lim, J. S., Lee, K. G., Lee, S. J., Hong, K. W., 2008: Toxin gene profiling of Bacillus cereus food isolates by PCR. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem
May Phonvisay, Jai-Wei Lee, Jhong-Jie Liou, Hsian-Yu Wang and Chun-Yen Chu
shown to successfully confer protection against homologous strains of RA, but not heterologous ones ( 9 , 12 , 16 ). Due to the diversity of RA serotypes isolated from the field, a vaccine capable of providing cross-protection would be desirable. Under this circumstance, using a molecule conserved among various RA serotypes as the antigen is imperative. The 42-kDa outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is the major virulence factor of RA responsible for cellular adhesion and invasion ( 4 , 5 ). OmpA can be found in all RA serotypes with minor genetic heterogeneity among
haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) ( 26 ). The clinical symptoms of PED are diarrhoea, vomiting, and dehydration which result in very high mortality among suckling piglets and large economic losses ( 5 , 8 , 21 ). Various factors influence the clinical signs of PED, mainly the age of the animals, the herd’s immune status, and the virulence of the strain ( 18 ). Multiple PEDV strains are circulating on different pig farms around the world and they differ in virulence.
PED was observed for the first time in 1971 in the United
Ewa Paździor, Agnieszka Pękala-Safińska and Dariusz Wasyl
. Differentiation of Shewanella putrefaciens and Shewanella alga on the basis of whole-cell protein profiles, ribotyping, phenotypic characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis Appl Environ Microbiol 1997 63 2189 2199
29 Wang X.H., Oon H.L., Ho G.W., Wong W.S., Lim T.M., Leung K.Y.: Internalization and cytotoxicity are important virulence mechanisms in Vibrio-fish epithelial cell interactions. Microbiology 1998, 144, 2987–3002. 9846734 10.1099/00221287-144-11-2987
Wang X.H. Oon H.L. Ho G.W. Wong W.S. Lim T.M. Leung K
polyprotein of 3,898 amino acids, with a 5′ untranslated region (UTR) and a 3′UTR at either end ( 18 ). The polyprotein undergoes viral and cellular proteolysis to produce four structural proteins (C, E0 or E rns , E1, and E2) and eight non-structural proteins (N pro , P7, NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B) ( 18 ).
Because of its utility in tracking the virus origin and developing effective control strategies against CSF, many studies focus on sequence diversity analysis of CSFV, particularly the sequence variation associated with virulence changes ( 8 ). The sequence