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Staphylococcus aureus: Immunopathogenesis and Human Immunity

.00012 29. Queck SY, Khan BA, Wang R, Bach TH, Kretschmer D, Chen L, Kreiswirth BN, Peschel A, Deleo FR, Otto M. Mobile genetic elementencoded cytolysin connects virulence to methicillin resistance in MRSA. PLoS Pathog 2009; 5:e1000533. doi: 10.1371. 30. Miles G, Cheley S, Braha O, Bayley H. The staphylococcal leukocidin bicomponent toxin forms large ionic channels. Biochemistry 2001; 40:8514-22. 31. Gillet Y, Issartel B, Vanhems P, et al. Association between Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying gene

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Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Healthy Adults and in School Children

outcome of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteriemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers. Lancet 2004;364:703-5. 7. Vandenesch F, Naimi T, Enright MC, et al. Communityacquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriyng Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence. Emrg Infect Dis 2003;9:978-84. PMid:12967497 PMCid:3020611 8. Zetola N, Francis JS, Neurmberger EL, et al. Community- acquired methicillin

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Multiplex PCR Assay for Identifi cation and Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

coli and Campylobacter jejuni by partial sequencing of virulence genes. Mol Cell Probes 2005;19(3):187-93. 18. Linton D, Lawson AJ, Owen RJ, Stanley J. PCR detection, identifi cation to species level, and fi ngerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli direct from diarrheic samples. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35(10):2568-72. 19. Harzandi N, Jamshidi Sh, Dezfulian M, et al. Molecular detection and speciation of Campylobacter species in children with gastroenteritidis using polymerase chain reaction in Bahomar Hospital of Karaj

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Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Upper Gastrointestinal Disease

-specific and disease-associated virulence factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93: 14648-53. Odenbreit S, Puls J, Sedlmaier B, Gerland E, Fischer W, Haas R. Translocation of Helicobacter pylori CagA into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion. Science 2000;287:1497-500. PMid:10688800 Monack DM, Mueller A, Falkow S. Persistent bacterial infections: the interface of the pathogen and the host immune system. Nat Rev Microbiol

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Mechanisms of Intracellular Chlamydiae Survival

-step polymerase chain reaction. Apll Environ Microbiol. 8:2494-2498. 5. Carlson JH, Whit mire WM, Crane DD, Wicke L, Virtaneva K, Sturdevant DE, Kupko JJ 3rd, Porcella SF, Martinez-Orengo N, Heinzen RA, Kari L, Caldwell HD. (2008). The Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid is a transcriptional regulator of chromosomal genes and a virulence factor. Infect Immun. 76: 2273 6. Hagan RJ, Mathews SA, Mukhopadhyay S, Summersgil JT and Timms P. (2004). Chlamydial persistence: beyond the biphasic paradigm. Infect. Immun. 7(4), 1843-1855. 7. Vivoda

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Interleukin-32 in Infection, Inflammation and Cancer Biology

a novel gene expressed in activated natural killer cells and T cells. J Immunol. 1992 Jan;148(2):597–603. 12. Kang J-W, Park YS, Lee DH, Kim MS, Bak Y, Ham SY, et al. Interaction network mapping among IL-32 isoforms. Biochimie. 2014 Jun;101:248–51. 13. Jaekal J, Jhun H, Hong J, Park S, Lee J, Yoon D, et al. Cloning and characterization of bovine interleukin-32 beta isoform. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010 Sep;137(1–2):166–71. 14. Lee S, Kim S, Bae S, Choi J, Hong J, Ryoo S, et al. Interleukin-32 gamma specific monoclonal antibody and developing IL

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Genotypic characterization of Enterococcus species isolated from the oral cavity and their pattern of antibiotic susceptibility

by performing specific gene uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for E. faecalis and E. faecium as previously described [ 3 ]. Identification of putative virulence genes; efaA (gene for endocarditis), gelE (gene for gelatinase), ace (gene for collagen binding antigen), asa (gene for aggregation substance), cylA (gene for cytolysin activator), and esp (gene for surface adhesin) of E. faecalis and E. faecium were performed as described previously ( Table 1 ) . Table 1 Primers used to identify species and to detect the virulence genes

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Brief communication (Original). Differentially expressed genes of Naegleria fowleri during exposure to human neuroblastma cells

, Lin J, et al. Comparing gene discovery from Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays and Clontech PCR-select cDNA subtraction: a case study. BMC Genomics. 2004; 5: 26. 10. Lacrue AN, Jamus AA, Beerntsen BT. The novel Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoite protein, Pg93, is preferentially expressed in the nucleus of oocyst sporozoites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005; 73:634-43. 11. Florent I, Porcel BM, Guillaume E, Silva CD, Artiguenave F, Maréchal E, et al. A Plasmodium falciparum FcB1-schizont-EST collection providing clues to schizont specific gene

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Original article. Electron micrographs of human and avian influenza viruses with high and low pathogenicity


Background: An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Thailand was first reported in 2004. To date, electron micrographs demonstrating the morphology of HPAI H5N1 virus particle are quite limited.

Objective: To demonstrate the morphology of HPAI H5N1 virus particles, avian influenza viruses with low pathogenicity, seasonal influenza viruses, and H5N1 structural components in infected cells. The M amino acid residues that might affect the viral morphology were also analyzed.

Methods: Electron micrographs of negatively-stained virus particles and positively-stained thin sections of the HPAI H5N1 virus infected cells were visualized under a transmission electron microscope. M amino acid sequences of the study viruses were retrieved from the GenBank database and aligned with those of reference strains with known morphology and residues that are unique for the morphological type of the virus particles.

Results: Morphologically, three forms of influenza virus particles, spherical, regular, and irregular rods, and long filamentous particles, were demonstrated. However, the spherical form was the most predominant morphological type and accounted for more than 80% of the virus populations examined. In addition, the viral entry and exit steps including incomplete particles in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were visualized. Our analyses did not find any M amino acid residues that might influence the viral morphology.

Conclusion: Of all virus isolates studied, we demonstrated that the spherical particles were the major population observed regardless of virus subtype, host of origin, virus virulence, or passage history. Our study suggested that the morphology of influenza virus particles released, might not be strongly influenced by M gene polymorphism.

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A preliminary report on the susceptibility to aminoglycosides of Escherichia coli isolated from the community-acquired urinary tract infections in adults in south-east Poland

References 1. Alberici I. et al.: Pathogens causing urinary tract infections in infants: A European overview by the ESCAPE study group. Eur. J. Pediatr., 2014. 2. Bien J. et al.: Role of uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence factors in development of urinary tract infection and kidney damage. Int. J. Nephrol., 2012, Article ID 681473, 2012. doi: 10.1155/2012/681473 3. Firoozeh F. et al.: Detection of virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with cystitis and pyelonephritis. Int. J. Infect

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