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Sara Batoei, Mohaddese Mahboubi and Reza Yari

EZ. Distribution and evolution of virulence factors in septicemic Escherichia coli . Int J Med Microbiol 2010; 300(6):367-370. doi: 11. Arshad M, Seed PC. Urinary tract infections in the infant. Clin Perinatol 2015; 42(1):17-28. doi: 12. Saltoglu N, Karali R, Yemisen M, Ozaras R, Balkan II, Mete B, et al. Comparison of community onset healthcare associated and hospital acquired urinary infections caused by extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Escherichia

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E. Villar-Luna, O. Goméz-Rodriguez, R. I. Rojas-Martínez and E. Zavaleta-Mejía

carrying dominant genes conferring resistance to the three major species of RKNs on tomato ( Mi-1 ), potato ( Mh ), soybeans (Mir1) and pepper (N and Tabasco) ( Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ). Meloidogyne enterolobii has been detected in Africa, Europe, USA, Central and South America ( Brito et al ., 2007 ; Moens et al., 2009 ; Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ); and recently was first reported in Mexico parasitizing watermelon (Veracruz state) and tomato plants (Sinaloa state) ( Ramirez-Suarez et al ., 2014 ; Martinez et al ., 2015 ); however, its presence in other crops

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D. Tumialis, M. Łopieńska, A. Mazurkiewicz, E. Pezowicz and I. Skrzecz

species with traditional method remains difficult and in many instances only the analysis of DNA sequences from species in question can provide an accurate identification ( Liu & Berry, 1995 ). Internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tandem repeat unit (ITS1 – 5.8S –ITS2) are required to species identification and in phylogenetic studies ( Nguyen et al ., 2001 ; Stock et al ., 2001 ; Hominick, 2002 ; Spiridonow et al ., 2004 ). The ITS region gene sequences has also been used to study among- and intra-population variability of Steinernema

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Mariola Dreger and Karolina Wielgus

:1932-1935. 27. Qiu J, Feng H, Lu J, Xiang H, Wang D, Dong J, Wang J, Wang X, Liu J, Deng X. Eugenol reduces the expression of virulence-related exoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010; 76(17):5846-51. 28. Di Pasqua R, Mamone G, Ferranti P, Ercolini D, Mauriello G. Changes in the proteome of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson as stress adaptation to sublethal concentrations of thymol. Proteomics 2010; 10(5):1040-1049. 29. Carineiro De Barros J, Lucia da Conseição M, Gomes Neto NJ, Vieira da Costaa AK, Siqueira Júnior

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M. Hasby Saad, O. Safwat, D. El-Guindy, R. Raafat, D. Elgendy and E. Hasby

): Presence Of Reactive Microglia In Monkey Substantia Nigra Years After 1-Methyl- 4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine Administration. Ann. Neurol., 54(5): 599 - 604. Doi: 10.1002/Ana.10728 Masocha, W., Kristensson, K. (2012): Passage Of Parasites Across The Blood-Brain Barrier. Virulence, 3(2): 202 - 212. Doi: 10.4161/Viru.19178 Medeiros, M.S., Schumacher-Schuh, A., Cardoso, A.M., Bochi, G.V., Baldissarelli, J., Kegler, A., Santana, D., Chaves, C.M., Schetinger, M.R., Moresco, R.N., Rieder, C.R., Fighera, M.R. (2016): Iron And Oxidative

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A. A. Othman and Z. S. Shoheib

parasites protect themselves against the host by activating various evasion mechanisms including HSP synthesis ( Buchmeier & Heffron, 1990 ). Apparently, HSPs play specific functions in differentiation of parasites, in protection from the host killing mechanisms, including free radicals, and even in virulence ( Devaney, 2006 ). Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) functions as a part of a multi-protein complex that promotes the folding and stability of client proteins. It is essential for survival of nematodes as confirmed in Brugia malayi ( Selkirk et al ., 1989

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Sonia Elena Popovici, Ovidiu Horea Bedreag and Dorel Sandesc

genus Acinetobacter with the recognition of Acinetobacter baumannii sp. nov., Acinetobacter haemolyticus sp. nov., Acinetobacter johnsoniisp. nov., and Acinetobacter junii sp. nov., and emended description of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter lwoffii. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36:228-240. 5. Jones CL, Clancy M, Honnold C, et al. Fatal outbreak of an emerging clone of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with enhanced virulence. Clin Infect Dis 2015, 61(2):145-54. 6. Choi WS, Kim SH, et al. Nosocomial Outbreak of Carbapenem

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Barbara Kołakowska

References 1. Finfer S. Clinical controversies in the management of critically ill patients with severe sepsis. Virulence [Internet]. 2014;5(1):200–5. Available from: 2. Lee SH, Park MS, Park BH, Jung WJ, Lee IS, Kim SY, et al. Prognostic implications of serum lipid metabolism over time during sepsis. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015(Ldl). 3. Simsek T, Uzelli Simsek H, Canturk NZ. Response to trauma and metabolic changes: posttraumatic metabolism. Turkish J Surg [Internet]. 2014