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E. Villar-Luna, O. Goméz-Rodriguez, R. I. Rojas-Martínez and E. Zavaleta-Mejía

carrying dominant genes conferring resistance to the three major species of RKNs on tomato ( Mi-1 ), potato ( Mh ), soybeans (Mir1) and pepper (N and Tabasco) ( Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ). Meloidogyne enterolobii has been detected in Africa, Europe, USA, Central and South America ( Brito et al ., 2007 ; Moens et al., 2009 ; Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ); and recently was first reported in Mexico parasitizing watermelon (Veracruz state) and tomato plants (Sinaloa state) ( Ramirez-Suarez et al ., 2014 ; Martinez et al ., 2015 ); however, its presence in other crops

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D. Tumialis, M. Łopieńska, A. Mazurkiewicz, E. Pezowicz and I. Skrzecz

species with traditional method remains difficult and in many instances only the analysis of DNA sequences from species in question can provide an accurate identification ( Liu & Berry, 1995 ). Internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tandem repeat unit (ITS1 – 5.8S –ITS2) are required to species identification and in phylogenetic studies ( Nguyen et al ., 2001 ; Stock et al ., 2001 ; Hominick, 2002 ; Spiridonow et al ., 2004 ). The ITS region gene sequences has also been used to study among- and intra-population variability of Steinernema

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M. Hasby Saad, O. Safwat, D. El-Guindy, R. Raafat, D. Elgendy and E. Hasby

): Presence Of Reactive Microglia In Monkey Substantia Nigra Years After 1-Methyl- 4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine Administration. Ann. Neurol., 54(5): 599 - 604. Doi: 10.1002/Ana.10728 Masocha, W., Kristensson, K. (2012): Passage Of Parasites Across The Blood-Brain Barrier. Virulence, 3(2): 202 - 212. Doi: 10.4161/Viru.19178 Medeiros, M.S., Schumacher-Schuh, A., Cardoso, A.M., Bochi, G.V., Baldissarelli, J., Kegler, A., Santana, D., Chaves, C.M., Schetinger, M.R., Moresco, R.N., Rieder, C.R., Fighera, M.R. (2016): Iron And Oxidative

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A. A. Othman and Z. S. Shoheib

parasites protect themselves against the host by activating various evasion mechanisms including HSP synthesis ( Buchmeier & Heffron, 1990 ). Apparently, HSPs play specific functions in differentiation of parasites, in protection from the host killing mechanisms, including free radicals, and even in virulence ( Devaney, 2006 ). Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) functions as a part of a multi-protein complex that promotes the folding and stability of client proteins. It is essential for survival of nematodes as confirmed in Brugia malayi ( Selkirk et al ., 1989