;26: e1000828. 15. Uppuluri P, Pierce CG, Thomas DP, Bubeck SS, Saville SP, Lopez-Ribot JL. The transcriptional regulator Nrg1p controls Candida albicans biofilm formation and dispersion. Eukaryot Cell 2010;9:1531-7. 16. Nailis H, Kucharikova S, Řičicova M, Van Dijck P, Deforce D, Nelis H, Coenye T. Real-time PCR expression profiling of genes encoding potential virulence factors in Candida albicans biofilms: identification of model-dependent and - independent gene expression. BMC Microbiol 2010;16:114. 17. Nett JE
Helena Bujdáková, Naďa Kulková and Lucia Černáková
Ivan Kosalec, Snježana Ramić, Dubravko Jelić, Roberto Antolović, Stjepan Pepeljnjak and Nevenka Kopjar
USA 2004;101:5048-52. Chen H, Fink GR. Feedback control of morphogenesis in fungi by aromatic alcohols. Genes Dev 2006;20:1150-61. Enjalbert B, Whiteway M. Release from quorum-sensing molecules triggers hyphal formation during Candida albicans resumption of growth. Eukaryot Cell 2005;4:1203-10. Lo H-J, Köhler JR, DiDomenico B, Loebenberg D, Cacciapuoti A, Fink GR. Nonfilamentous C. albicans mutants are avirulent. Cell 1997;90:939-49. Ghosh S, Kebaara BW, Atkin
J, Pontón J. Garaizar J. Genes and molecules involved in Aspergillus fumigatus virulence. Rev Iberoam Micol 2005;22:1-23. Madan T, Priyadarsiny P, Vaid M, Kamal N, Shah A, Haq W, Bandacharya Katti S, Usha Sarma P. Use of a synthetic peptide epitope of Asp f 1, a major allergen or antigen of Aspergillus fumigatus , for improved immunodiagnosis of allergenic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2004;11:552-8. Latgé JP. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999
Bangalore H. Durgesh, Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif, Asmaa M. Malash, Mohamed I. Hashem, Mansour K. Assery, Mohammed Al Asmari and Pavithra Durgesh
by performing specific gene uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for E. faecalis and E. faecium as previously described [ 3 ]. Identification of putative virulence genes; efaA (gene for endocarditis), gelE (gene for gelatinase), ace (gene for collagen binding antigen), asa (gene for aggregation substance), cylA (gene for cytolysin activator), and esp (gene for surface adhesin) of E. faecalis and E. faecium were performed as described previously ( Table 1 ) . Table 1 Primers used to identify species and to detect the virulence genes
Sandra Mojsova, Kiril Krstevski, Igor Dzadzovski, Zagorka Popova and Pavle Sekulovski
enterocin EJ97 production by Enterococcus faecalis EJ97 are located on a conjugative plasmid. Appl Environ Microbiol. 62, 1633-1641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.3.1633-1641.2003 PMCid:PMC150074 19. Vankerckhoven, V., Van Autgaerden, T., Vael, C., Lammens, C., Chapelle, S., Rossi, R., Jabes, D., Goossens, H. (2004). Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of asa1, gelE, cylA, esp and hyl genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of Enterococcus faecium. J Clin Microbiol. 42, 4473-4479. http
Supathra Tiewcharoen, Jundee Rabablert, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Waravee Wiyawuth, Nat Malainual, Virach Junnu, Kumchol Chaiyo and Prasert Auewarakul
, Lin J, et al. Comparing gene discovery from Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays and Clontech PCR-select cDNA subtraction: a case study. BMC Genomics. 2004; 5: 26. 10. Lacrue AN, Jamus AA, Beerntsen BT. The novel Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoite protein, Pg93, is preferentially expressed in the nucleus of oocyst sporozoites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005; 73:634-43. 11. Florent I, Porcel BM, Guillaume E, Silva CD, Artiguenave F, Maréchal E, et al. A Plasmodium falciparum FcB1-schizont-EST collection providing clues to schizont specific gene
Suda Louisirirotchanakul, Pornparn Rojanasang, Kleophant Thakerngpol, Naree Choosrichom, Kridsda Chaichoune, Phisanu Pooruk, Aphinya Namsai, Robert Webster and Pilaipan Puthavathana
Background: An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Thailand was first reported in 2004. To date, electron micrographs demonstrating the morphology of HPAI H5N1 virus particle are quite limited.
Objective: To demonstrate the morphology of HPAI H5N1 virus particles, avian influenza viruses with low pathogenicity, seasonal influenza viruses, and H5N1 structural components in infected cells. The M amino acid residues that might affect the viral morphology were also analyzed.
Methods: Electron micrographs of negatively-stained virus particles and positively-stained thin sections of the HPAI H5N1 virus infected cells were visualized under a transmission electron microscope. M amino acid sequences of the study viruses were retrieved from the GenBank database and aligned with those of reference strains with known morphology and residues that are unique for the morphological type of the virus particles.
Results: Morphologically, three forms of influenza virus particles, spherical, regular, and irregular rods, and long filamentous particles, were demonstrated. However, the spherical form was the most predominant morphological type and accounted for more than 80% of the virus populations examined. In addition, the viral entry and exit steps including incomplete particles in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were visualized. Our analyses did not find any M amino acid residues that might influence the viral morphology.
Conclusion: Of all virus isolates studied, we demonstrated that the spherical particles were the major population observed regardless of virus subtype, host of origin, virus virulence, or passage history. Our study suggested that the morphology of influenza virus particles released, might not be strongly influenced by M gene polymorphism.
Mongkol Pongsuchart, Amornpun Sereemaspun and Kiat Ruxrungtham
detection of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick. Archives of Virology. 2010; 155:385-9. 7. Odenthal KJ, Gooding JJ. An introduction to electrochemical DNAbiosensors. Analyst. 2007; 132: 603-10. 8. Noguera P, Posthuma-Trumpie G, van Tuil M, van der Wal F, de Boer A, Moers A, et al. Carbon nanoparticles in lateral flow methods to detect genes encoding virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2011
Andika C. Putra, Keiji Tanimoto, Elisna Syahruddin, Sita Andarini, Yoshio Hosoi and Keiko Hiyama
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Warisa Amornrit, Veerachat Muangsombut, Tanapol Wangteeraprasert and Sunee Korbsrisate
expression in Caco-2 human intestinal cells. J Nutr. 2001; 131:1452-8. 8. Bullen JJ, Ward CG, Wallis SN. Virulence and the role of iron in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Infect Immun. 1974; 10:443-50. 9. Wuthiekanun V, Smith MD, Dance DA, White NJ. Isolation of Pseudomonas pseudomallei from soil in north-eastern Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1995; 89:41-3. 10. Schaible UE, Kaufmann SH. Iron and microbial infection. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004; 2:946-53. 11. Loprasert S, Sallabhan R, Whangsuk W, Mongkolsuk