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carrying dominant genes conferring resistance to the three major species of RKNs on tomato ( Mi-1 ), potato ( Mh ), soybeans (Mir1) and pepper (N and Tabasco) ( Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ). Meloidogyne enterolobii has been detected in Africa, Europe, USA, Central and South America ( Brito et al ., 2007 ; Moens et al., 2009 ; Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ); and recently was first reported in Mexico parasitizing watermelon (Veracruz state) and tomato plants (Sinaloa state) ( Ramirez-Suarez et al ., 2014 ; Martinez et al ., 2015 ); however, its presence in other crops
Rogério Parentoni Martins, Rosana Tidon and José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho
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species with traditional method remains difficult and in many instances only the analysis of DNA sequences from species in question can provide an accurate identification ( Liu & Berry, 1995 ). Internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tandem repeat unit (ITS1 – 5.8S –ITS2) are required to species identification and in phylogenetic studies ( Nguyen et al ., 2001 ; Stock et al ., 2001 ; Hominick, 2002 ; Spiridonow et al ., 2004 ). The ITS region gene sequences has also been used to study among- and intra-population variability of Steinernema
M. Hasby Saad, O. Safwat, D. El-Guindy, R. Raafat, D. Elgendy and E. Hasby
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Medeiros, M.S., Schumacher-Schuh, A., Cardoso, A.M., Bochi, G.V., Baldissarelli, J., Kegler, A., Santana, D., Chaves, C.M., Schetinger, M.R., Moresco, R.N., Rieder, C.R., Fighera, M.R. (2016): Iron And Oxidative
parasites protect themselves against the host by activating various evasion mechanisms including HSP synthesis ( Buchmeier & Heffron, 1990 ). Apparently, HSPs play specific functions in differentiation of parasites, in protection from the host killing mechanisms, including free radicals, and even in virulence ( Devaney, 2006 ).
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) functions as a part of a multi-protein complex that promotes the folding and stability of client proteins. It is essential for survival of nematodes as confirmed in Brugia malayi ( Selkirk et al ., 1989