Bangalore H. Durgesh, Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif, Asmaa M. Malash, Mohamed I. Hashem, Mansour K. Assery, Mohammed Al Asmari and Pavithra Durgesh
by performing specific gene uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for E. faecalis and E. faecium as previously described [ 3 ]. Identification of putative virulencegenes; efaA (gene for endocarditis), gelE (gene for gelatinase), ace (gene for collagen binding antigen), asa (gene for aggregation substance), cylA (gene for cytolysin activator), and esp (gene for surface adhesin) of E. faecalis and E. faecium were performed as described previously ( Table 1 ) .
Primers used to identify species and to detect the virulencegenes
Ivan Kosalec, Snježana Ramić, Dubravko Jelić, Roberto Antolović, Stjepan Pepeljnjak and Nevenka Kopjar
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J, Pontón J. Garaizar J. Genes and molecules involved in Aspergillus fumigatus virulence. Rev Iberoam Micol 2005;22:1-23.
Madan T, Priyadarsiny P, Vaid M, Kamal N, Shah A, Haq W, Bandacharya Katti S, Usha Sarma P. Use of a synthetic peptide epitope of Asp f 1, a major allergen or antigen of Aspergillus fumigatus , for improved immunodiagnosis of allergenic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2004;11:552-8.
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Sandra Mojsova, Kiril Krstevski, Igor Dzadzovski, Zagorka Popova and Pavle Sekulovski
enterocin EJ97 production by Enterococcus faecalis EJ97 are located on a conjugative plasmid. Appl Environ Microbiol. 62, 1633-1641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.3.1633-1641.2003 PMCid:PMC150074
19. Vankerckhoven, V., Van Autgaerden, T., Vael, C., Lammens, C., Chapelle, S., Rossi, R., Jabes, D., Goossens, H. (2004). Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of asa1, gelE, cylA, esp and hyl genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of Enterococcus faecium. J Clin Microbiol. 42, 4473-4479. http
Aneta Atanasovska Stojanovska, Saska Todoroska, Mirjana Popovska, Ilijana Muratovska and Linda Zendeli Bedzeti
Kameswara Subrahmanya Lakkakula B, Venugopal P, Paul SF, Rao SR.Polymorphic regions in the interleukin-1 gene and susceptibility to chronic periodontitis: a genetic association study. Genet Test Mol Bio-markers. 2015 Apr; 19(4): 175–81. doi: 10.1089/gtmb.2014.0275. Epub 2015 Feb 24.
7. Puri K, Chhokra M, Dodwad V, Puri N. Association of interleukin-1 α (-889) gene polymorphism in patients with generalized aggressive and chronic periodontitis.Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2015 Jan-Feb; 12(1): 76–82.
8. Paster BJ, Boches SK, Galvin JL, Ericson RE, Lau CN, Levanos VA
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Suda Louisirirotchanakul, Pornparn Rojanasang, Kleophant Thakerngpol, Naree Choosrichom, Kridsda Chaichoune, Phisanu Pooruk, Aphinya Namsai, Robert Webster and Pilaipan Puthavathana
Background: An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Thailand was first reported in 2004. To date, electron micrographs demonstrating the morphology of HPAI H5N1 virus particle are quite limited.
Objective: To demonstrate the morphology of HPAI H5N1 virus particles, avian influenza viruses with low pathogenicity, seasonal influenza viruses, and H5N1 structural components in infected cells. The M amino acid residues that might affect the viral morphology were also analyzed.
Methods: Electron micrographs of negatively-stained virus particles and positively-stained thin sections of the HPAI H5N1 virus infected cells were visualized under a transmission electron microscope. M amino acid sequences of the study viruses were retrieved from the GenBank database and aligned with those of reference strains with known morphology and residues that are unique for the morphological type of the virus particles.
Results: Morphologically, three forms of influenza virus particles, spherical, regular, and irregular rods, and long filamentous particles, were demonstrated. However, the spherical form was the most predominant morphological type and accounted for more than 80% of the virus populations examined. In addition, the viral entry and exit steps including incomplete particles in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were visualized. Our analyses did not find any M amino acid residues that might influence the viral morphology.
Conclusion: Of all virus isolates studied, we demonstrated that the spherical particles were the major population observed regardless of virus subtype, host of origin, virus virulence, or passage history. Our study suggested that the morphology of influenza virus particles released, might not be strongly influenced by M gene polymorphism.
Mongkol Pongsuchart, Amornpun Sereemaspun and Kiat Ruxrungtham
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Andika C. Putra, Keiji Tanimoto, Elisna Syahruddin, Sita Andarini, Yoshio Hosoi and Keiko Hiyama
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9. Moffatt MF, Kabesch M, Liang L, Dixon AL, Strachan D