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DNA Sequencing Analysis of African Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Virulence Gene (AXaVrg) DNA Marker

REFERENCES Adhikari TB, Vera Cruz CM, Zhang Q, Nelson RJ, Skinner DZ, Mew TW, Leach JE (1995): Genetic diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Asia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61, 966–971. Adhikari TB, Basnyat RC, Mew TW (1999): Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae on rice lines containing single resistance genes and gene combinations. Plant Disease, 83, 46–50. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1999.83.1.46. Akanji BO, Ajele JO, Onasanya A, Oyelakin O (2011): Genetic fingerprinting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa involved in

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The Presence of Iron and Iucc Virulence-Associated Genes in Romanian Apec Isolates

References Awwad, E., K. Adwan, M. Farraj, T. Essawi, I. Rumi, A. Manasra, S. Baraitareanu, M. R. Gurau and D. Danes. 2015. Cell Envelope Virulence Genes among Field Strains of Brucella melitensis Isolated in West Bank Part of Palestine. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia. 6: 281-286. Akram N., H. Mojtaba, A. Azam, A. Masoud and H. Najmeh 2017. ʺDistribution of pathogenicity island markers and virulence factors in new phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolatesʺ. Folia Microbiologica, 63

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Prevalence and some virulence genes of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from chicken meats and giblets

.1371/journal.pone.0148518 Momtaz H., Jamshidi A. (2013): Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat in Iran: Serogroups, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance properties. Poultry Sci., 92: 1305-1313. Nataro J.P., Kaper J.B. (1998). Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 11: 142-201. Ongor H., Kalin R., Cetinkaya B. (2007). Investigations of Escherichia coli O157 and some virulence genes in samples of meat and faeces from clinically healthy cattle in Turkey. Vet. Rec., 161: 392

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Virulence and Mating Type of Phytophthora infestans Isolates in the Czech Republic

: 10.1094/PHYTO-99-10-1150. Zhu SX, Vossen JH, Bergervoet M, Nijenhuis M, Kodde L, Kessel GJT, Vleeshouwers V, Visser RGF, Jacobsen E (2015): An updated conventional and a novel GM potato late blight R gene differential set for virulence monitoring of Phytophthora infestans. Euphytica, 202, 219-234. doi: 10.1007/s10681-014-1276-0.

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Goat Colostrum—Source of Toxigenic Bacillus Cereus

potential virulence factors by veterinary isolates of Bacillus species associated with non-gastrointestinal infections. App. Environ. Microbiol. , 69, 4, 2372—2376. DOI: 10.1128/aem.69.4.2372-2376.2003. 18. Schoeni, J. L., Wong, A. C., 1999: Heterogeneity observed in the components of haemolysin BL, an enterotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus . Int. J. Food Microbiol. , 53, 2—3, 159—167. 19. Seong, S. J., Lim, J. S., Lee, K. G., Lee, S. J., Hong, K. W., 2008: Toxin gene profiling of Bacillus cereus food isolates by PCR. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem

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Bioactive Enterococci Isolated from Slovak Ewes’ Lump Cheese

404, 9–25. Ribeiro T, Oliviera M, Fraqueza MJ, Lauková A, Elias M, Tenreiro R, Barreto AS, Semedo-Lemsaddek T (2011): Antibiotic resistance and virulence factors among enterococci isolated from Chourico, a traditional Portuguese dry fermented sausage. Journal of Food Protection, 74, 465–469. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X. Semedo T, Santos MA, Lopes MFS, Figueiredo Marques JJ, Barreto Crespo MT, Tenreiro R (2003): Virulence factors in food, clinical and reference enterococci: a common trait in the genus? Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 26, 13–22. doi: 10

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Analysis of Cutaneous Microbiota of Piglets with Hereditary Melanoma

in vitro models of wound healing. PLoS ONE, 11, e0166176. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166176. Nallapareddy SR, Murray BE (2008): Role of serum, a biological cue, in adherence of Enterococcus faecalis to extracellular matrix proteins, collagen, fibrinogen, and fibronectin. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197, 1728–1736. doi: 10.1086/588143. Nemeghaire S, Argudin MA, Fessler AT, Hauschild T, Schwarz S, Butaye P (2014): The ecological importance of the Staphylococcus sciuri species group as a reservoir for resistance and virulence genes. Veterinary

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A Simple Dual Stain for Detailed Investigations of Plant-Fungal Pathogen Interactions

: accepted. Raffaele S., Win J., Cano L.M., Kamoun S. 2010. Analyses of genome architecture and gene expression reveal novel candidate virulence factors in the secretome of Phytophthora infestans . BMC Genomics 11: Article No.: 637. [DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-637] Savory E.A., Granke L.L., Quesada- Ocampo L.M., Varbanova M., Hausbeck M.K., Day B. 2010. The cucurbit downy mildew pathogen Pseudoperonospora cubensis . Molecular Plant Pathology 12: 217-226. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2010.00670.x] Savory E.A., Adhikari B

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Alternaria Black Spot of Crucifers: Symptoms, Importance of Disease, and Perspectives of Resistance Breeding

genetics and genomics: Crop models 9. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. pp: 33-65. [DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7118-0_2] Wight W.D, Kim K.-H., Lawrence C. B., Walton J. D. 2009. Biosynthesis and role in virulence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor depudecin from Alternaria brassicicola . MPMI 22(10): 1258-1267. [DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-22-10-1258] Zhang F. L., Xu J. B., Yan H., Li M. Y. 1997. A study on inheritance of resistance to black leaf spot in seedlings of Chinese cabbage. Acta Agriculture Borealis Sinica 12: 115

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Characteristics of Staphylococcus Xylosus Isolated from Subclinical Mastitis in Cows

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from subclinical mastitis in cows. The material consisted of 42 isolates of S. xylosus obtained from 276 samples of milk collected from cows with subclinical mastitis. The isolates were obtained from the udder secretions of 33 cows from farms in the Lublin region (Poland). S. xylosus was found in 15.2% of tested milk samples. The study did not reveal any macroscopic changes in the milk or symptoms in the cow’s body. The number of somatic cells in milk samples ranged from 245,000 to 416,000/ml of milk (on average 268,000/ml of milk). The ability to produce slime was observed in 42.9% of S. xylosus isolates. None of the tested isolates demonstrated the ability to produce protease or cause haemolysis. Five isolates of S. xylosus (11.9%) were classified to the methicillin-resistant group. The mecA gene was not found in any of these isolates. The enzyme β-lactamase was detected in 28.6% of S. xylosus isolates. The highest efficacy against S. xylosus was demonstrated for cephalosporin antibiotics: cefacetrile and cefoperazone (80.1% and 76.2% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus, respectively). A significant quantity of isolates was resistant to streptomycin, linkomycin, penicillin and neomycin (approximately 10% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus).

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