References Anonymous (1997). International Standard 2631-1. Mechanical vibration and shock. Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration. ISO. P. 31. Anonymous (2007). Eiropas Struktūrfondu projekts (ESF). Darba apstākļi un riski Latvijā [Work Conditions and Risks in Latvia]. Rīga: A/S Inspecta & RSU DDVI. 146 lpp. (in Latvian). Anonymous (2006). Valsts Darba inspekcijas (VDI) vadlīnijas. Darba aizsardzības prasības nodarbināto aizsardzībai pret vibrācijas radīto risku
Jānis Dundurs and Žanna Martinsone
References Anderssen, R. S., Davies, A. R., de Hoog, F. R. (2008). On the sensitivity of interconversion between relaxation and creep. Rheol. Acta, 47, 159-167. Badalov, F. B. (1980). Method of Series in Nonlinear Hereditary Theory of Viscoelasticity. Tashkent, Fan (in Russian). Badalov, F. B., Ganikhanov, Sh. F. (2002). Vibration of hereditary-deformable elements of structure of flying vehicles [Ô.Á. Áàäàëîâ, Ø. Ô. Ãàíèõàíîâ Âèáðàöèÿ íàñëåäñòâåííî-äåôîðìèðóåìûõ ýëåìåíòîâ êîíñòðóêöèè ëåòàòåëüíûõ àïïàðàòîâ]. TSAI
Jevgeòijs Carkovs and Andrejs Matvejevs
. Katafygiotis, L., Tsarkov, Ye. (1996). Mean square stability of linear dynamical systems with small Markov perturbation. I. Bounded coefficients. Random Operators and Stochastic Equations, 4 (2), 133-154. Kato, T. (1980) Perturbations Theory for Linear Operators. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 619 pp. Leipholz, H. H. E. (1978). Stability of Elastic Structures. Springer Verlag, Wien. 299 pp. Li, J., Hua H., Shen, R., Jin, X. (2004). Stochastic vibration of axially loaded monosymmetric Timoshenko thin-walled beam. J. Sound Vibration
Tatjana Farbtuha, Žanna Martinsone, Ivars Vanadziņš, Jānis Dundurs, Inese Mārtiņsone and Anita Piķe
.). Kaļķis, V., Roja, Ž. (red.). Rīga: Elpa. (in Latvian). Sauni, K., Virtema, P., Pääkkönen, R., Toppila, E., Pyykkö, J., Vitti, J. (2010). Quality of life (EQ-5D) and hand-arm vibration syndrome. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health. , 83 (2), 209-216. Seidel, H. (2008). Selected health risks caused by long-term whole-body vibration. Amer. J. Industr. Med. , 23 (4), 589-604. Thevendrom, V., Mawdeslay, M. J. (2004). Perception of human risk factors in construction projects: An exploratory study
Inese Mārtiņsone, Mārīte-Ārija Baķe, Žanna Martinsone and Maija Eglīte
Possible hazards of work environment in metal processing industry in Latvia
The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors in the work environment of Latvian metal processing industry using the database of the Laboratory of Hygiene and Occupational Diseases of the Institute of Occupational Safety and Environmental Health, Rīga Stradiņš University. During the period between 1996 and 2005, 703 measurements were made in metalworking enterprises. In Latvia, approximately 2.4% of the workforce is involved in the metal processing industry. Physical (noise, lighting, vibration) and chemical (abrasive dust, welding aerosol and contained metals) risk factors were analysed. In the assessed metalworking workplaces, the work environment was estimated to be of poor quality, because occupational exposure limits or recommended values were exceeded in 42% (n = 294) of cases. Noise, manganese and welding aerosols most often exceeded the occupational exposure limits or recommended values, the significance was P < 0.001, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively.
Ivars Vanadziņš, Maija Eglīte, Mārīte Baķe, Dagmāra Sprūdža, Žanna Martinsone, Inese Mārtiņsone, Ņina Rusakova, Anita Piķe and Pāvels Sudmalis
Estimation of risk factors of the work environment and analysis of employees' self estimation in the wood processing industry
The aims of our study were to determine risk factors of the work environment in the wood processing industry in Latvia during 1998-2006, to conduct a survey and self- evaluation of health of the employees and to elaborate a set of preventive measures for improvement of the work environment. The work conditions in wood processing companies in Latvia over the study period were poor; of a total of 940 evaluated workplaces/processes in more than one half of cases (n = 483), the risk factors of the working environment exceeded the occupational exposure limits. Measurements made in wood processing and furniture manufacturing most frequently limiting values or recommended values of the occupational exposure were exceeded for noise, indoor air, lighting, welding spray, whole-body vibration, wood dust and other risk factors. Self-evaluation of health by employees indicates that the main health problems were pain in the back and joints, poor hearing, eye irritation, skin irritation and inflammation, chronic coughing, rhinitis, recurring windpipe inflammations, and frequent headaches. Self-evaluation of employees indicated poor diagnostics of occupational diseases and work related diseases as for 82% of the respondents with health complaints they were not confirmed with medical diagnosis.
Šimons Svirskis, Linda Klimavičiusa and Zane Dzirkale
of adverse events affecting patients after discharge from the hospital. Ann. Intern. Med ., 138 (3), 161–167. Gerbarg, P. L., Brown, R. P. (2001). Phytomedicines for prevention and treatment of mental health disorders. Psych. Clin. North Amer ., 36 , 37–47. Gerber, R. (2001). Vibrational Medicine . Bear & Company. 608 pp. Gould, T. D., Dao, D. T.,, Kovacsics, C. E. (2009). The Open Field Test. In: Gould, T. D. (Ed.). Neuromethods V42, Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice . Humana Press. pp. 1–20. Han, J., Yang, M., Chen, Y
R.F. Severson, K.L. McDuffie, R.F. Arrendale and O.T. Chortyk
A rapid method for the analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbons and neophytadiene in cured tobacco was developed. Briefly, ground tobacco was extracted for 15 min with methylene chloride in a flask placed in an ultrasonic vibration bath, 3-Methyltricosane was added as the internal standard. The solution was filtered and the solvent removed. The sample was redissolved in hexane and chromatographed on a small silicic acid column. The hydrocarbonneophytadiene fraction that eluted with hexane was reduced in volume and analysed on a SE-54 wall-coated glass capillary column, which resolved and permitted quantitation of the normal, iso-methyl- branched, and anteiso-methyl-branched hydrocarbons. The analytical data obtained by this method were equal to those obtained by the conventional Soxhlet extraction procedure. Based on experience in our laboratory, analysis time was reduced about fivefold and isomeric hydrocarbons were resolved by capillary gas chromatography.
The described ''cold'' trap has been developed for preparatory purposes and is designed for collecting and precipitating the smoke of 6000 cigarettes. The trap operates without filter material or added solvents. The precipitated smoke condensate itself acts as precipitating filter. By the new trap the precipitation of the smoke is thus performed much more tenderly than by all other hitherto known precipitation apparatusses. The quality of the "cold'' condensate does not differ from that of electrostatically produced condensate or from that of condensate obtained by a vibration frit. The reproducibility of the results obtained by means of the described preparatory ''cold'' trap is satisfactory. The mode of action of the trap is discussed.
In our opinion mechanical smoke collection traps do not make sufficient allowance for the particular chemical and physico chemical properties of tobacco tar and its constituents, and, therefore, do not produce the tar in its original state. For this reason a new apparatus has been designed which compared to other processes makes it possible to collect the tobacco smoke in a solvent. Our experience has shown that this is the only practicable method of producing a tobacco tar which as far as possible remains unchanged by chemical reactions and is suitable for biological tests. The tobacco smoke is washed out by the solvent in a wash bottle and a suitably diluted tar solution is obtained which is drawn off intermittently. The specially designed smoking apparatus is separately mounted on top so that the smoke passes into the wash bottle by the shortest possible route. The entire machine is built into a framework of angle iron and is mounted on vibration dampers to eliminate oscillation. It enables a large number of cigarettes to be smoked in a very short time