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Review on the laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

81.8% and the specificity is 98.6%. When the IgM antibody titer in the acute phase changes, the sensitivity of real-time quantitative PCR is 91.7%. Thus, real-time quantitative PCR can be used as a diagnostic tool for MP infection [ 16 ]. Other studies considered specimen collection time to have an impact on real-time quantitative PCR results. As the disease worsens, the sensitivity of PCR detected by real-time quantitative PCR also decreases [ 17 ]. 3.1.3 LAMP technology LAMP is a new technology developed in recent years. It has a high sensitivity and

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Advances in Epidemiological Studies of Herpes Zoster

Abstract

Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.

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Research progress of follicular cytotoxic T cells in HIV infection

Abstract

Recently, a new type of CD8+ T-cell subset, namely, the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5 (CXCR5+) cluster of differentiation (CD8+) T-cell subset (also called the follicular cytotoxic T-cell (TFC) subgroup), has been discovered around B-cell follicles. The discovery has aroused widespread interest. However, the processes and mechanisms of TFCs taking part in the immune response of the germinal center and their specific roles must still be clearly identified. This article reviews domestic and foreign studies on factors regulating the phenotype, physiological functions, maturity, and differentiation of TFCs and roles and clinical significance of these cells in HIV infection. This review has shown good application prospects for TFCs. The author believes that further studies on TFCs can provide another tool for cytotherapy to control or cure chronic viral infections or tumors.

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Identification of HIV-1 Genotypic Resistance in Patients on First-line Antiretroviral Therapy Using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Sequencing

Abstract

Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the characteristics of HIV drug-genotypic resistance among patients taking first-line ARV regimens using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, and guide to design optimal ARV regimens for these patients.

Methods HIV reverse transcriptase-encoded gene was amplified with RT-PCR and amplified PCR products were aligned and comparatively analyzed with HIV resistance database to find drug-resistance mutations.

Results Twenty-eight PCR products were amplified and sequenced successfully in 30 serum samples of recruited HIV-infected patients with virologic failure. The resistance rate was 96%, mutations in NRT region were found in 26 patients (93%), while mutations in NNRT region were found in 27 patients (96%). M184V was the most common mutation (86%), K65R was selected in 14% of recruited individuals and TAMs occurred in 50% of patients, which resulted in resistance to NRTIs. Y181C and V179D were the most common mutations in NNRTIs and prevalence was 43% (12/28) and 36% (10/28), respectively, which resulted in cross-resistance to NNRTIs due to low-genetic barrier.

Conclusions Virologic failure may occur in long-term administration of first-line ARV regimens, and drugresistance mutations can be found in these patients, which resulted in resistance to first-line ARV regimens. We emphasized that HIV viral load assay and resistance assay were important tools to guide healthcare workers to design an optimal second-line ARV regimens for HAART-experienced individuals with virologic failure.

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Research progress of siRNA in anti-influenza viral infection

, Manhattan, NY, 2009. 230. CsoRba T. Pantaleo V. Burgy N.J. RNA silencing: an antiviral mechanism Gad L. John P.C. Advances in virus research 75 2 Academic Press Manhattan, NY 2009 230 [15] O’Keefe EP. siRNA and shRNA: Tools for inhibiting protein expression through gene silencing. (2013-06-05) [2017-03-20], http://www.labome.cn/method/siRNAs-and-shRNAs-Tools-for-Protein-Knockdown-by-Gene-Silencing.html . O’Keefe EP. siRNA and shRNA: Tools for inhibiting protein expression through gene silencing 2013-06-05 2017-03-20 http://www.labome.cn/method/siRNAs-and-shRNAs-Tools

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Research progress in the targeted monitoring of surgical site infections

respiratory tract infection after the surgical anesthesia. Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology, 2008, 18(7): 958-959. 18 Sheng F, Clinical Feature research and prevention measures of the incision infection of orthopedic surgery. Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology, 2012, 22(20): 4513-4514. 19 Zhang X. Risk factor analysis and countermeasures on the incision site infection of the general surgery patients. Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology, 2013, 23(5): 1041-1043. 20 Anaya DA, Cormier JN, Xing Y, et al . Development and validation of a novel stratification tool

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Recent Progress in Diagnosis Methods for Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Its Clinical Applications

skin test for diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Clin Microbiol, 2006, 44(6):1944-1950. 9 Peng Z, Zhu CM. Research progress of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1. Chongqing Med, 2011, 40(1):89-98. 10 Hougardy JM, Schepers K, Place S, et al. Heparin-binding-hemagglutinin-induced INF-gamma release as a diagnostic tool for latent tuberculosis. PLoS One, 2007, 2(10): e926. 11 Brock I, Munk ME, Kok-Jensen A, et al . Performance of whole blood IFN-γ test for tuberculosis diagnosis based on PPD or the specific antigens ESAT-6 and

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Review of Research on Routes of Helicobacter pylori Infection

,47:109-116. 26 Vale FF, Vítor JM. Genomic methylation: a tool for typing Helicobacter pylori isolates, Appl Environ Microbiol, 2007,73:4243-4249. 27 Kim do H, Jung HM, Hwang YJ, et al . Culture and polymerase chain reaction of Helicobacter pylori from rectal and terminal ileal fluid after polyethylene glycol (colyte)ingestion in healthy adults with positive urea breath test. Korean J Gastroenterol, 2010,56:27-32. 28 Falsafi T, Valizadeh N, Najafi M, et al . Culture of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples in children. Can J Microbiol, 2007, 53:411-416. 29

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Liver Cirrhosis and Intestinal Bacterial Translocation

obstruction. Clin Nutr 2009;28:674-678. 43. Gibson GR. Prebiotics as gut microflora management tools. J Clin Gastroenterol 2008;42( Suppl 2):S75-S79. 44. Gratz SW, Mykkanen H, El-Nezami HS. Probiotics and gut health: a special focus on liver diseases. World J Gastroenterol 2010;16:403-410. 45. Kirpich IA, Solovieva NV, Leikhter SN, Shidakova NA, Lebedeva OV, Sidorov PI, et al. Probiotics restore bowel flora and improve liver enzymes in human alcohol-induced liver injury: a pilot study. Alcohol 2008;42:675-682.

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Chinese Consensus on Antiviral Treatment of Chronic Hepatits B Patients with Nucleos(t)ide Analogues

: Management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. European Association For The Study of The Liver. J Hepatol 2012; 57(1):167-185. 7. Zoulim F, Perrillo R. Hepatitis B: reflections on the current approach to antiviral therapy. J Hepatol 2008; 48 (Suppl 1):S2-S19. 8. Chevaliez S, Rodriguez C, Pawlotsky JM. New virologic tools for management of chronic hepatitis B and C. Gastroenterology 2012; 142(6):1303-1313. 9. Wang F, Wang H, Shen H, Meng C, Weng X, Zhang W. Evolution of hepatitis B virus polymerase mutations in a patient

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