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The main goal of this study was to design and propose specific abdominal zones that would contain the gastrointestinal organs in healthy cattle when scanned with trans-abdominal ultrasound. The second goal was to measure the intestinal wall thicknesses of the cranial duodenum, jejunum and colon and to compare healthy cattle intestinal wall thicknesses with pathological cases. All of the six healthy cattle had organs located in the zones proposed. Three of the four pathological cases had organs outside of the zones proposed. The six healthy cattle had an average cranial duodenum wall thickness of 2.45 mm, an average jejunum wall thickness of 1.90 mm and an average colon wall thickness of 3.02 mm. Of the pathological cases, three out of four had intestinal walls that were thicker than that of the average values for the healthy cattle. The thickest intestinal walls were found in the paratuberculosis positive cow. This cow had a cranial duodenum wall thickness of 9.5 mm, a jejunum wall thickness of 4.9 mm and a colon wall thickness of 10.0 mm. In conclusion, trans-abdominal ultrasonography has the potential to be an ideal diagnostic tool for the investigation of the bovine gastrointestinal tract and gastrointestinal disorders such as abscesses, peritonitis and displacement of the abomasum. Trans-abdominal ultrasound also has the potential to be a non-painful, non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of proliferative intestinal inflammations in cattle.
The evaluation of uric acid concentrations in the blood of snakes is a crucial tool in the diagnosis of gout and renal disease; both prevalent diseases in captive reptiles. However, without an understanding of the physiological fluctuations in uric acid levels and the absence of distinction that makes pathological changes, biochemical parameters are devalued. This study focuses on investigating the relationship between feeding rate and plasma-uric acid concentrations of snakes. The aim of this investigation is to facilitate a better understanding of the feed-induced changes that occur, and to render the analysis of this biochemical parameter as a more potent diagnostic tool. A total of 10 snakes were used in the study and the basal concentration of uric acid was established prior to feeding via blood biochemical analysis. The snakes were then fed rats and successive postprandial blood samples were taken for the monitoring of uric acid levels. The results demonstrated that feeding led to substantial elevations in the uric acid values, whereby postprandial concentrations were significantly elevated for up to 5 days after feeding. The postprandial elevations in uric acid documented in these snakes were of similar levels reported in snakes afflicted with gout or renal disease. The results demonstrated the significant changes that occur to uric acid levels after feeding, and highlights the resemblance between postprandial increases in uric acid and concentrations reported in snakes suffering from renal disease or gout. To avoid a misdiagnosis and to distinguish transient postprandial hyperuricemia from pathological elevations, collecting sufficient anamnestic data on time since last feeding in performing repeated sampling after one week period of fasting is suggested.
A modified agyrophil technique was applied to peripheral blood smears to determine the mean AgNOR counts (MAC) of lymphocytes and ultimately assess the state of the lymphoid system in various clinical conditions of dogs. Fifty dogs, from clinically normal to pets with leukaemia, presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, were recruited. Blood smears from each dog were stained with routine Romanowsky and modified agyrophil stains. Signalment, clinical diagnoses and hematologic parameters of the dogs were related to the MAC. An AgNOR proliferative index (AgPI) — percentage of lymphocytes with 3 or more AgNORs, was determined, and correlated with MAC. The statistical significance was determined at P < 0.05. MAC ranged from 1.17 in clinically healthy patients to 6.00 in leukaemic patients. The MAC was 2.00 in patients (n = 26) with lymphocyte counts within reference intervals (900—2400 per microliter); 2.23 in patients (n = 4) with lymphopenia; 2.18 in patients with lymphocytosis (n = 18) and 4.73 in patients (n = 4) with lymphocytic leukemia. Also, the MAC was 2.00 in non-anemic dogs while it was 2.47, 2.49 and 3.06 in patients with mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. The MAC correlated strongly with AgPI (r = 0.91). The ancillary AgNOR technique provides a cheaper, more rapid and sensitive tool than routine lymphocyte counts in assessing the state of lymphoid proliferation in a variety of conditions in the dog.
The detection of chromosomal damage serves as a tool for the verification of the genotoxic effects of chemical substances in vitro. We used conventional cytogenetic analysis in order to test for the potential genotoxic action of the insecticide thiacloprid (the active ingredient in commercial preparation CALYPSO 480 SC). The test cultures of bovine lymphocytes obtained from the peripheral blood were incubated with the insecticide in concentrations of: 30, 120, 240 and 480 μg.ml−1 for 24 and 48 hours. After 24 hours of incubation, we observed that the increasing concentrations resulted in a significant (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) increase in the frequency of DNA damage. Our experiments showed the presence of aberrations of a non-stable type (chromatid and chromosome breakage). The conventional chromosome analysis was supplemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the detection of numeric and stable structural aberrations. Whole chromosome probes for bovine chromosomes 1, 5 and 7 (BTA 1, BTA 5 and BTA 7) were used in the experiments.
Z. Kubicová, M. Filipová, J. Jurovčíková and L Cabanová
The molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes isolates is an important tool for monitoring the spread of the strains in food chains, providing evidence for epidemiological investigations and for the detection of out-breaks. The demand of European typing data centralization, collection and sharing stimulated the generation of “EURL L. monocytogenes Database (EURL Lm DB)” in 2012 led by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for L. monocytogenes (ANSES Maisons-Alfort Laboratory for Food Safety, France) in close collaboration with Applied Maths. This database includes the typing results and epidemiological information on strains isolated from food, environmental or animal samples and it is in connection with human strains database TESSy (The European Surveillance System) led by the ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control). In total 147 L. monocytogenes isolates were examined by PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis) in 2014—2015 in VFI Dolny Kubin from different sources. Nearly half (68) of the 147 isolates in the national Slovak database came from milk or dairy products samples and the related manufacturing environment. In this work, 68 isolates associated with milk were selected and divided into 27 clusters (95 % similarity level) after combined comparison analysis (AscI and ApaI) by BioNumerics 6.6 software. Eight clusters included three or more similar PFGE profiles.
The objective of this study was to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP) and tear production before and after topical anaesthesia in healthy chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera). Thirteen healthy non-sedated chinchillas (eight males and five females) were used in this study. The tear production was measured by the novel endodontic paper point tear test (PPTT) using Roeko Colour No. 30 Paper points. Following the PPTT, one drop of 0.4 % oxybuprokainium chloride was added to the eye to anaesthetise the cornea and the IOP was measured using the Tono-Pen Avia®Vet. Excess anaesthetic was removed from the conjunctival fornix using a sterile cotton tipped applicator and the PPTT II was performed. The PPTT I and II were measured in 26 eyes, mean ± standard deviations (SD) were 7.98 ± 1.95 mm.min−1, and 9.71 ± 3.52 mm.min−1 respectively. The IOP was measured in 20 eyes, and the mean ± SD was 28.52 ± 12.48 mmHg (35.50 ± 9.31 mmHg in males and 21.53 ± 11.57 mmHg in females). There was no significant difference in the PPTT results between the left and right eyes or between the male and female groups. The males were found to have a significantly higher IOP than females and the PPTT II was significantly greater than the PPTT I. The PPTT test proved to be effective, easy to use, and reliable, causing little apparent discomfort to the chinchillas and could prove to be a much more effective tool than the Schirmer tear test for the evaluation of the tear production in animals with small eyes and/or low aqueous tear production. The mean intraocular pressure proved to be much higher in this population of chinchillas than those previously studied and so further investigation is warranted before a reliable reference range may be produced.
Students [online]. University of Szeged, Szeged, Department of Pharmacognosy, 229 pp.
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I. Jiménez-Munguía, L. Pulzová, K. Bhide, Ľ. Čomor, E. Káňová, Z. Tomečková, I. Širochmanová and M. Bhide
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